Main Brain Facts - A Primer on the Brain and Nervous System (7th Ed.) – KAVLI-Gatsby-Society for...

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A Companion Publication to BrainFacts.org

A PRIMER ON THE BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM

A PRIMER ON THE BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM

A companion to BrainFacts.org
A PUBLIC INFORMATION INITIATIVE OF:

FOUNDING PARTNERS

The Gatsby Charitable Foundation
Gatsby is a Trust set up by David Sainsbury to realise
his charitable objectives. We focus our support on a limited
number of areas:
•
•
•
•
•
•

Plant science research
Neuroscience research
Science and engineering education
Economic development in Africa
Public policy research and advice
The arts

We are proactive in devising projects to achieve our aims.
We are enthusiastic about supporting innovation. We are
analytical as we believe it is important to understand the
opportunities and problems we tackle. We take a long-term
view as we do not think much can be achieved by short, oneoff projects. We are always enthusiastic to form partnerships
with other organisations who share our goals.

The Kavli Foundation
The Kavli Foundation, established by Fred Kavli, is
dedicated to advancing science for the benefit of humanity,
promoting public understanding of scientific research, and
supporting scientists and their work. The Foundation’s mission
is implemented through an international program of research
institutes in the fields of astrophysics and theoretical physics,
nanoscience, and neuroscience, and through the support of

92

conferences, symposia, endowed professorships, journalism
workshops and other activities. The Foundation is also a
founding partner of the Kavli Prizes, biennial $1 million prizes
that recognize scientists for their seminal advances in three
research areas: astrophysics, nanoscience and neuroscience.

Society for NeuroScieNce

The Society for Neuroscience is the world’s largest
organization of scientists and physicians dedicated to
understanding the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral
nervous system.
Neuroscientists investigate the molecular and cellular
levels of the nervous system; the neuronal systems responsible
for sensory and motor funct; ion; and the basis of higher order
processes, such as cognition and emotion. This research provides
the basis for understanding the medical fields that are concerned
with treating nervous system disorders. These medical specialties
include neurology, neurosurgery, psychiatry, and ophthalmology.
Founded in 1969, the Society has grown from 500 charter
members to more than 42,000 members worldwide. The Society
has more than 150 local or regional chapters. With activities
ranging from lectures to networking events and information
sharing, SfN chapters enable individual members to engage
their colleagues at the local level.
The mission of the Society is to:
• Advance the understanding of the brain and the
nervous system by bringing together scientists of
diverse backgrounds, by facilitating the integration
of research directed at all levels of biological
organization, and by encouraging translational
research and the application of new scientific
knowledge to develop improved disease treatments
and cures.
• Provide professional development activities,
information, and educational resources
for neuroscientists at all stages of their
careers, including undergraduates, graduates,
and postdoctoral fellows, and increase
participation of scientists from a diversity
of cultural and ethnic backgrounds.

•

Promote public information and general education
about the nature of scientific discovery and the
results and implications of the latest neuroscience
research. Support active and continuing
discussions on ethical issues relating to the
conduct and outcomes of neuroscience research.
• Inform legislators and other policy-makers about
new scientific knowledge and recent developments
in neuroscience research and their implications
for public policy, societal benefit, and continued
scientific progress.
The exchange of scientific information occurs at an
annual fall meeting where more than 16,000 reports of
new scientific findings are presented and more than 30,000
people attend. This meeting, the largest of its kind in the
world, is the arena for the presentation of new results in
neuroscience.
The Society’s weekly journal, The Journal of
Neuroscience, contains articles spanning the entire range of
neuroscience research and has subscribers worldwide. The
Society’s ongoing education and professional development
efforts reach teachers and help promote the education of
Society members. Print and electronic publications inform
members about Society activities.
A major goal of the Society is to inform the public
about the progress and benefits of neuroscience research.
The Society accomplishes this goal by providing
information about neuroscience to schoolteachers and
encouraging its members to speak to young people about the
human brain and nervous system.

A Companion Publication to

A PUBLIC INFORMATION INITIATIVE OF:

Society for Neuroscience | 1121 14th Street, NW | Suite 1010 | Washington, DC 20005 | www.sfn.org

P r e fa c e
Over the past two decades, scientific knowledge about the structure and function of the brain and
nervous system and understanding of brain-based disorders have increased exponentially. Neuroscientists
are using remarkable new tools and technologies to learn how the brain controls and responds to the body,
drives behavior, and forms the foundation for the mind. Research is also essential for the development of
therapies for more than 1,000 nervous system disorders that affect more than 1 billion people worldwide.
As these strides occur, it is crucial that scientists communicate with the general public, helping
students, teacher, parents, medical caregivers, policymakers, and others stay informed of developments in
neuroscience. In particular, students — the scientists, policymakers and scientifically literate citizens of the
future — need access to clear, easy-to-use information on this important topic.
As part of its enduring commitment to public education and outreach, the Society for Neuroscience
(SfN) is pleased to present the seventh edition of Brain Facts: A Primer on the Brain and Nervous
System. This edition has been substantially revised. Research progress has been updated throughout the
publication, and a new section on animal research added. The information also has been reorganized into
six sections to make it easier for readers to glean the “big ideas” covered, and the specific topics that fall
under each category.
The publication of the Brain Facts seventh edition coincides with the launch of BrainFacts.org,
a public information initiative of The Kavli Foundation, The Gatsby Charitable Foundation, and
SfN. BrainFacts.org brings to digital life the historic Brain Facts book, and augments it with hundreds
of additional, scientifically vetted public information resources available from leading neuroscience
organizations worldwide. BrainFacts.org is envisioned as a dynamic and unique online source for
authoritative public information about the progress and promise of brain research. It will be updated
frequently with the latest neuroscience information from around the globe, while the Brain Facts book will
continue to be a vital teaching and outreach tool.
We encourage you to visit BrainFacts.org frequently to supplement information found within this
companion book, and to join us in the quest for continuing revolutionary advances in understanding the
brain and mind.

2

Society for NeuroScieNce

coNteNtS
N NtS
Introduction .................................................................................................................. 4

Part 1: Introduction to the Brain
Chapter 1: Brain Basics .................................................................................................. 6
Chapter 2: The Developing Brain ................................................................................... 13

Part 2: Sensing, Thinking, and Behaving
Chapter 3: Senses and Perception .................................................................................. 18
Chapter 4: Learning, Memory, and Language .................................................................. 25
Chapter 5: Movement................................................................................................... 29
Chapter 6: Sleep ......................................................................................................... 32

Part 3: Across the Lifespan
Chapter 7: Stress ......................................................................................................... 36
Chapter 8: Aging ........................................................................................................ 39

Part 4: Brain Research
Chapter 9: Kinds of Research ........................................................................................ 42

Part 5: Diseases and Disorders
Chapter 10: Childhood Disorders ................................................................................... 49
Chapter 11: Addiction .................................................................................................. 52
Chapter 12: Degenerative Disorders ............................................................................... 57
Chapter 13: Psychiatric Disorders ................................................................................... 62
Chapter 14: Injury and Illness ........................................................................................ 66

Part 6: Treating Brain Disorders
Chapter 15: Potential Therapies ..................................................................................... 73
Chapter 16: Neuroethics ............................................................................................... 76
Glossary .................................................................................................................... 80
Neuroscience Resources ............................................................................................... 86
Index ......................................................................................................................... 88

Society for NeuroScieNce

3

iNtroductioN
The huMAN BRAIN — a spongy, threepound mass of tissue — is the most complex living structure
in the universe. With the capacity to create a network
of connections that far surpasses any social network and
stores more information than a supercomputer, the brain
has enabled humans to achieve breathtaking milestones —
walking on the moon, mapping the human genome, and
composing masterpieces of literature, art, and music. What’s
more, scientists still have not uncovered the extent of what
the brain can do. This single organ controls every aspect
of our body, ranging from heart rate and sexual activity to
emotion, learning, and memory. The brain controls the
immune system’s response to disease, and determines, in part,
how well people respond to medical treatments. Ultimately,
it shapes our thoughts, hopes, dreams, and imaginations. It is
the ability of the brain to perform all of these functions that
makes us human.
Neuroscientists, whose specialty is the study of the
brain and the nervous system, have the daunting task of
deciphering the mystery of how the brain commands the
body. Over the years, the field has made enormous progress.
For example, neuroscientists now know that each person
has as many as 100 billion nerve cells called neurons, and
the communication between these cells forms the basis of all
brain function. However, scientists continue to strive for a
deeper understanding of how these cells are born, grow, and
organize themselves into effective, functional circuits that
usually remain in working order for life.
The motivation of researchers is to further our
understanding of human behavior, including how we read
and speak and why we form relationships; to discover ways
to prevent or cure many devastating disorders of the brain as
well as the body under the brain’s control; and to advance
the enduring scientific quest to understand how the world
around us — and within us — works.
The importance of this research cannot be overstated.
More than 1,000 disorders of the brain and nervous system
result in more hospitalizations than any other disease group,
including heart disease and cancer. Neurological illnesses
affect more than 50 million Americans annually and
cost more than $500 billion to treat. In addition, mental

4

BraiN factS | introduction

disorders strike 44 million adults a year at a cost of $148
billion. Advances in research could reduce these costs. For
example, discovering how to delay the onset of Alzheimer’s
disease by five years could save $50 billion in annual health
care costs.
In the past two decades, neuroscience has made
impressive progress in many of the field’s key areas. Now,
more than ever, neuroscience is on the cusp of major
breakthroughs.
Recently, significant findings have been documented in
the following areas.
Genetics Disease genes have been identified that
are key to several disorders, including the epilepsies,
Alzheimer’s disease, Huntington’s disease, Parkinson’s disease,
and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). These discoveries
have provided new insight into underlying disease
mechanisms and are beginning to suggest new treatments.
With the mapping of the human genome, neuroscientists
have been able to make more rapid progress in identifying
genes that either contribute to or directly cause human
neurological disease. Mapping animal genomes has aided
the search for genes that regulate and control many
complex behaviors.
Gene-environment Interactions Most major
diseases have a genetic basis strongly influenced by the
environment. For example, identical twins, who share the
same DNA, have an increased risk of getting the same
disease compared with nonidentical siblings. However, if
one twin gets the disease, the probability the other will
also be affected is between 30 percent and 60 percent,
indicating that there are environmental factors at play
as well. Environmental influences involve factors such as
exposure to toxic substances, diet, level of physical activity,
and stressful life events.
Brain Plasticity The brain possesses the ability
to modify neural connections to better cope with new
circumstances. Scientists have begun to uncover the
molecular basis of this process, called plasticity, revealing
how learning and memory occur and how declines might
be reversed. In addition, scientists have discovered that
the adult brain continually generates new nerve cells — a

Society for NeuroScieNce

process known as neurogenesis. Interestingly, one of the most
active regions for neurogenesis in the brain, the hippocampus,
is also an area heavily involved in learning and memory.
New Therapies Researchers have gained insight
into the mechanisms of molecular neuropharmacology, or
how drugs affect the functioning of neurons in the nervous
system, providing a new understanding of the mechanisms of
addiction. These advances have also led to new treatments
for depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder. In
addition, neuroscientists have discovered that many of the
toxic venoms used by animals can be adapted into new
pharmacological treatments. For example, the poison of a
puffer fish, tetrodotoxin (TTX), halts electrical signaling in
nerve cells. However, in discrete, targeted doses, TTX can be
used specifically to shut down those nerve cells involved in
sending constant signals of chronic pain.
Imaging Revolutionary imaging techniques,
including positron emission tomography (PET), functional
magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and optical imaging with
weak lasers, have revealed the brain systems underlying
attention, memory, and emotions. These techniques also
have pointed to dynamic changes that occur in schizophrenia
and other disorders.
Cell Death Two major advances in neuroscience —
the discovery of how and why neurons die, along with the
discovery of stem cells, which divide and form new neurons
— have many clinical applications. These findings have
dramatically improved the chances of reversing the effects
of injury in both the brain and the spinal cord. The first
effective treatments for stroke and spinal cord injury based on
these advances are under study.
Brain Development New understanding of brain
function, as well as newly discovered molecules responsible
for guiding nervous system development, have given
scientists greater insight into certain disorders of childhood,
such as cerebral palsy. Together with the discovery of stem
cells, these advances are pointing to novel strategies for
helping the brain or spinal cord regain functions lost as a
result of injury or developmental dysfunction.

Society for NeuroScieNce

This book provides a glimpse of what is known about
the nervous system, the disorders of the brain, and some
of the exciting avenues of research that promise new
therapies for many neurological diseases. In the years
ahead, neuroscience research funded by public and private
support will continue to expand our knowledge of how this
extraordinary organ and the entire nervous system function.

introduction

| BraiN factS

5

chaP
haPter
ter 1:
BraiN BaSicS
in

this

chapter

n

Anatomy of the Brain and the
Nervous System

n

The Neuron

n

Neurotransmitters and
Neuromodulators

Anatomy of the Brain and the Nervous System
The brain is the body’s control center, managing just
about everything we do. Whether we’re thinking, dreaming,
playing sports, or even sleeping, the brain is involved in
some way. A wonder of evolutionary engineering, the brain
is organized into different parts that are wired together in
a specific way. Each part has a specific job (or jobs) to do,
making the brain the ultimate multitasker. Working in
tandem with the rest of the nervous system, the brain sends
and receives messages, allowing for ongoing communication.
Mapping the Brain The cerebrum, the largest
part of the human brain, is associated with higher order
functioning, including the control of voluntary behavior.
Thinking, perceiving, planning, and understanding language
all lie within the cerebrum’s control. The cerebrum is divided
into two hemispheres — the right hemisphere and the
left hemisphere. Bridging the two hemispheres is a bundle
of fibers called the corpus callosum. The two hemispheres
communicate with one another across the corpus callosum.
Covering the outermost layer of the cerebrum is a
sheet of tissue called the cerebral cortex. Because of its gray
color, the cerebral cortex is often referred to as gray matter.
The wrinkled appearance of the human brain also can be
attributed to characteristics of the cerebral cortex. More than
two-thirds of this layer is folded into grooves. The grooves
increase the brain’s surface area, allowing for inclusion of
many more neurons.
The function of the cerebral cortex can be understood
by dividing it somewhat arbitrarily into zones, much like the
geographical arrangement of continents.

6

BraiN factS | introduction

to the brain

The frontal lobe is responsible for initiating and
coordinating motor movements; higher cognitive skills, such
as problem solving, thinking, planning, and organizing; and
for many aspects of personality and emotional makeup.
The parietal lobe is involved with sensory processes,
attention, and language. Damage to the right side of
the parietal lobe can result in difficulty navigating spaces,
even familiar ones. If the left side is injured, the ability to
understand spoken and/or written language may be impaired.
The occipital lobe helps process visual information,
including recognition of shapes and colors.
The temporal lobe helps process auditory information and
integrate information from the other senses. Neuroscientists
also believe that the temporal lobe has a role to play in
short-term memory through its hippocampal formation, and in
learned emotional responses through its amygdala.
All of these structures make up the forebrain. Other
key parts of the forebrain include the basal ganglia, which are
cerebral nuclei deep in the cerebral cortex; the thalamus; and
the hypothalamus. The cerebral nuclei help coordinate muscle
movements and reward useful behaviors; the thalamus passes
most sensory information on to the cerebral cortex after
helping to prioritize it; and the hypothalamus is the control
center for appetites, defensive and reproductive behaviors, and
sleep-wakefulness.
The midbrain consists of two pairs of small hills called
colliculi. These collections of neurons play a critical role
in visual and auditory reflexes and in relaying this type of
information to the thalamus. The midbrain also has clusters
of neurons that regulate activity in widespread parts of the
central nervous system and are thought to be important for
reward mechanisms and mood.
The hindbrain includes the pons and the medulla
oblongata, which control respiration, heart rhythms, and
blood glucose levels.
Another part of the hindbrain is the cerebellum
which, like the cerebrum, also has two hemispheres. The
cerebellum’s two hemispheres help control movement and
cognitive processes that require precise timing, and also play
an important role in Pavlovian learning.
The spinal cord is the extension of the brain through the
vertebral column. It receives sensory information from all parts

Society for NeuroScieNce

small concentrations of gray matter called ganglia, a
term specifically used to describe structures in the PNS.
Overall the nervous system is a vast biological computing
device formed by a network of gray matter regions
interconnected by white matter tracts.
The brain sends messages via the spinal cord to
peripheral nerves throughout the body that serve to
control the muscles and internal organs. The somatic
nervous system is made up of neurons connecting the
CNS with the parts of the body that interact with
the outside world. Somatic nerves in the cervical
region are related to the neck and arms; those in
the thoracic region serve the chest; and those in the
lumbar and sacral regions interact with the legs.
The autonomic nervous system is made of neurons
connecting the CNS with internal organs. It is divided
into two parts. The sympathetic nervous system mobilizes
energy and resources during times of stress and arousal,
while the parasympathetic nervous system conserves energy
and resources during relaxed states, including sleep.
Messages are carried throughout the nervous
system by the individual units of its circuitry: neurons.
The next section describes the structure of neurons,
how they send and receive messages, and recent
discoveries about these unique cells.

The top image shows the four main sections of the cerebral cortex: the frontal lobe, the
parietal lobe, the occipital lobe, and the temporal lobe. Functions such as movement are
controlled by the motor cortex, and the sensory cortex receives information on vision,
hearing, speech, and other senses. The bottom image shows the location of the brain’s
major internal structures.

of the body below the head. It uses this information for reflex
responses to pain, for example, and it also relays the sensory
information to the brain and its cerebral cortex. In addition,
the spinal cord generates nerve impulses in nerves that control
the muscles and the viscera, both through reflex activities and
through voluntary commands from the cerebrum.
The Parts of the Nervous System The forebrain,
midbrain, hindbrain, and spinal cord form the central
nervous system (CNS), which is one of two great divisions
of the nervous system as a whole. The brain is protected by
the skull, while the spinal cord, which is about 17 inches (43
cm) long, is protected by the vertebral column.
The other great division of the human brain is the
peripheral nervous system (PNS), which consists of nerves and

Society for NeuroScieNce

The Neuron

Cells within the nervous system, called neurons,
communicate with each other in unique ways. The
neuron is the basic working unit of the brain, a
specialized cell designed to transmit information
to other nerve cells, muscle, or gland cells. In fact,
the brain is what it is because of the structural
and functional properties of interconnected neurons. The
mammalian brain contains between 100 million and 100
billion neurons, depending on the species. Each mammalian
neuron consists of a cell body, dendrites, and an axon. The cell
body contains the nucleus and cytoplasm. The axon extends
from the cell body and often gives rise to many smaller
branches before ending at nerve terminals. Dendrites extend
from the neuron cell body and receive messages from other
neurons. Synapses are the contact points where one neuron
communicates with another. The dendrites are covered with
synapses formed by the ends of axons from other neurons.
When neurons receive or send messages, they transmit
electrical impulses along their axons, which can range

introduction to the brain

| BraiN factS

7

Nerve impulses involve the opening and
closing of ion channels. These are selectively
permeable, water-filled molecular tunnels that
pass through the cell membrane and allow
ions — electrically charged atoms — or small
molecules to enter or leave the cell. The flow of
ions creates an electrical current that produces
tiny voltage changes across the neuron’s cell
membrane.
The ability of a neuron to generate an
electrical impulse depends on a difference in
charge between the inside and outside of the
cell. When a nerve impulse begins, a dramatic
reversal in the electrical potential occurs on the
cell’s membrane, as the neuron switches from an
internal negative charge to a positive charge state.
The change, called an action potential, then passes
along the axon’s membrane at speeds up to several
hundred miles per hour. In this way, a neuron
may be able to fire impulses multiple times every
second.
When these voltage changes reach
the end of an axon, they trigger the release
of neurotransmitters, the brain’s chemical
messengers. Neurotransmitters are released at
nerve terminals, diffuse across the synapse, and
bind to receptors on the surface of the target
cell (often another neuron, but also possibly a
muscle or gland cell). These receptors act as onThe nervous system has two great divisions: the central nervous system (CNS), which consists of
the brain and the spinal cord, and the peripheral nervous system (PNS), which consists of nerves and-off switches for the next cell. Each receptor
and small concentrations of gray matter called ganglia. The brain sends messages via the spinal
has a distinctly shaped region that selectively
cord to the body’s peripheral nerves, which control the muscles and internal organs.
recognizes a particular chemical messenger. A
neurotransmitter fits into this region in much
in length from a tiny fraction of an inch (or centimeter)
the same way that a key fits into a lock. When
to three feet (about one meter) or more. Many axons are
the transmitter is in place, this interaction alters the target
covered with a layered myelin sheath, which accelerates the
cell’s membrane potential and triggers a response from the
transmission of electrical signals along the axon. This sheath
target cell, such as the generation of an action potential, the
is made by specialized cells called glia. In the brain, the glia
contraction of a muscle, the stimulation of enzyme activity,
that make the sheath are called oligodendrocytes, and in the
or the inhibition of neurotransmitter release.
peripheral nervous system, they are known as Schwann cells.
An increased understanding of neurotransmitters in
The brain contains at least ten times more glia than
the brain and knowledge of the effects of drugs on these
neurons. Glia perform many jobs. Researchers have known
chemicals — gained largely through animal research —
for a while that glia transport nutrients to neurons, clean
comprise one of the largest research efforts in neuroscience.
up brain debris, digest parts of dead neurons, and help hold
Scientists hope that this information will help them
neurons in place. Current research is uncovering important
become more knowledgeable about the circuits responsible
new roles for glia in brain function.
for disorders such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases.

8

BraiN factS | introduction

to the brain

Society for NeuroScieNce

Sorting out the various chemical circuits is
vital to understanding the broad spectrum of
the brain’s functions, including how the brain
stores memories, why sex is such a powerful
motivation, and what makes up the biological
basis of mental illness.
There are many different kinds of
neurotransmitters, and they all play an essential
role in the human body. The next section
provides a summary of key neurotransmitters
and neuromodulators, chemicals that help shape
overall activity in the brain.

Neurotransmitters and
Neuromodulators
Acetylcholine The first neurotransmitter
to be identified — about 80 years ago — was
acetylcholine (ACh). This chemical is released
by neurons connected to voluntary muscles,
causing them to contract, and by neurons that
control the heartbeat. ACh is also a transmitter
in many regions of the brain.
ACh is synthesized in axon terminals.
When an action potential arrives at the nerve
terminal, electrically charged calcium ions
rush in, and ACh is released into the synapse,
where it attaches to ACh receptors on the target
cells. On voluntary muscles, this action opens
sodium channels and causes muscles to contract.
ACh is then broken down by the enzyme
Neurons are cells within the nervous system that transmit information to other nerve cells, muscle,
or gland cells. Most neurons have a cell body, an axon, and dendrites. The cell body contains
acetylcholinesterase and resynthesized in the
the nucleus and cytoplasm. The axon extends from the cell body and often gives rise to many
nerve terminal. Antibodies that block one
smaller branches before ending at nerve terminals. Dendrites extend from the neuron cell body
type of ACh receptor cause myasthenia gravis,
and receive messages from other neurons. Synapses are the contact points where one neuron
a disease characterized by fatigue and muscle
communicates with another. The dendrites are covered with synapses formed by the ends of
axons from other neurons.
weakness.
Much less is known about ACh in the
blocks of proteins. Certain amino acids can also serve as
brain. Recent discoveries suggest that it may be
neurotransmitters in the brain. The neurotransmitters
critical for normal attention, memory, and sleep. Because
glycine and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) inhibit the
ACh-releasing neurons die in Alzheimer’s patients, finding
firing of neurons. The activity of GABA is increased by
ways to restore this neurotransmitter is a goal of current
benzodiazepines (e.g., valium) and by anticonvulsant drugs.
research. Drugs that inhibit acetylcholinesterase — and
In Huntington’s disease, a hereditary disorder that begins
increase ACh in the brain — are presently the main drugs
during midlife, the GABA-producing neurons in brain
used to treat Alzheimer’s disease.
centers that coordinate movement degenerate, causing
Amino Acids Amino acids, widely distributed
uncontrollable movements. Glutamate and aspartate act as
throughout the body and the brain, serve as the building
excitatory signals, activating, among others, N-methyl-dSociety for NeuroScieNce

introduction to the brain

| BraiN factS

9

aspartate (NMDA) receptors which, in developing animals,
have been implicated in activities ranging from learning
and memory to development and specification of nerve
contacts. The stimulation of NMDA receptors may promote
beneficial changes in the brain, whereas overstimulation can
cause nerve cell damage or cell death. This is what happens
as a result of trauma and during a stroke. Developing
drugs that block or stimulate activity at NMDA receptors
holds promise for improving brain function and treating
neurological and psychiatric disorders.
Catecholamines The term catecholamines includes
the neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine.
Dopamine and norepinephrine are widely present in the
brain and peripheral nervous system. Dopamine is present
in three principal circuits in the brain. The dopamine
circuit that regulates movement has been directly linked
to disease. Due to dopamine deficits in the brain, people
with Parkinson’s disease show such symptoms as muscle
tremors, rigidity, and difficulty in moving. Administration of
levodopa, a substance from which dopamine is synthesized,
is an effective treatment for Parkinson’s, allowing patients to
walk and perform skilled movements more successfully.
Another dopamine circuit is thought to be important for
cognition and emotion; abnormalities in this system have been
implicated in schizophrenia. Because drugs that block certain
dopamine receptors in the brain are helpful in diminishing
psychotic symptoms, learning more about dopamine is
important to understanding mental illness. In a third circuit,
dopamine regulates the endocrine system. Dopamine directs
the hypothalamus to manufacture hormones and hold them in
the pituitary gland for release into the bloodstream or to trigger
the release of hormones held within cells in the pituitary.
Deficiencies in norepinephrine occur in patients with
Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and Korsakoff’s
syndrome, a cognitive disorder associated with chronic
alcoholism. These conditions all lead to memory loss and a
decline in cognitive functioning. Thus, researchers believe
that norepinephrine may play a role in both learning and
memory. Norepinephrine is also secreted by the sympathetic
nervous system throughout the body to regulate heart
rate and blood pressure. Acute stress increases release of
norepinephrine from sympathetic nerves and the adrenal
medulla, the innermost part of the adrenal gland.

Serotonin This neurotransmitter is present in the
brain and other tissues, particularly blood platelets and the

10

BraiN factS | introduction

to the brain

lining of the digestive tract. In the brain, serotonin has been
identified as an important factor in sleep quality, mood,
depression, and anxiety. Because serotonin controls different
switches affecting various emotional states, scientists believe
these switches can be manipulated by analogs, chemicals
with molecular structures similar to that of serotonin. Drugs
that alter serotonin’s action, such as fluoxetine, relieve
symptoms of depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Peptides Short chains of amino acids that are linked
together, peptides are synthesized in the cell body and greatly
outnumber the classical transmitters discussed earlier. In
1973, scientists discovered receptors for opiates on neurons
in several regions of the brain, suggesting that the brain must
make substances very similar to opium. Shortly thereafter,
scientists made their first discovery of an opiate peptide
produced by the brain. This chemical resembles morphine,
an opium derivative used medically to kill pain. Scientists
named this substance enkephalin, literally meaning “in
the head.” Soon after, other types of opioid peptides
were discovered. These were named endorphins, meaning
“endogenous morphine.” The precise role of the naturally
occurring opioid peptides is unclear. A simple hypothesis is
that they are released by brain neurons in times of stress to
minimize pain and enhance adaptive behavior. Some sensory
nerves — tiny unmyelinated C fibers — contain a peptide
called substance P, which causes the sensation of burning
pain. The active component of chili peppers, capsaicin,
causes the release of substance P, something people should be
aware of before eating them.

Trophic Factors Researchers have discovered several
small proteins in the brain that act as trophic factors, substances
that are necessary for the development, function, and survival
of specific groups of neurons. These small proteins are made in
brain cells, released locally in the brain, and bind to receptors
expressed by specific neurons. Researchers also have identified
genes that code for receptors and are involved in the signaling
mechanisms of trophic factors. These findings are expected to
result in a greater understanding of how trophic factors work
in the brain. This information should also prove useful for the
design of new therapies for brain disorders of development and
for degenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease and
Parkinson’s disease.
hormones In addition to the nervous system, the
endocrine system is a major communication system of the
body. While the nervous system uses neurotransmitters as

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its chemical signals, the endocrine system uses hormones.
The pancreas, kidneys, heart, adrenal glands, gonads, thyroid,
parathyroid, thymus, and even fat are all sources of hormones.
The endocrine system works in large part by acting on
neurons in the brain, which controls the pituitary gland. The
pituitary gland secretes factors into the blood that act on
the endocrine glands to either increase or decrease hormone
production. This is referred to as a feedback loop, and it
involves communication from the brain to the pituitary to
an endocrine gland and back to the brain. This system is very
important for the activation and control of basic behavioral
activities, such as sex; emotion; responses to stress; and eating,
drinking, and the regulation of body functions, including
growth, reproduction, energy use, and metabolism. The way the
brain responds to hormones indicates that the brain is very
malleable and capable of responding to environmental signals.
The brain contains receptors for thyroid hormones
(those produced by the thyroid) and the six classes of
steroid hormones, which are synthesized from cholesterol
— androgens, estrogens, progestins, glucocorticoids,
mineralocorticoids, and vitamin D. The receptors are found
in selected populations of neurons in the brain and relevant
organs in the body. Thyroid and steroid hormones bind to
receptor proteins that in turn bind to DNA and regulate the
action of genes. This can result in long-lasting changes in
cellular structure and function.
The brain has receptors for many hormones; for
example, the metabolic hormones insulin, insulin-like
growth factor, ghrelin, and leptin. These hormones are taken
up from the blood and act to affect neuronal activity and
certain aspects of neuronal structure.
In response to stress and changes in our biological
clocks, such as day and night cycles and jet lag, hormones
enter the blood and travel to the brain and other organs. In
the brain, hormones alter the production of gene products
that participate in synaptic neurotransmission as well as
affect the structure of brain cells. As a result, the circuitry of
the brain and its capacity for neurotransmission are changed
over a course of hours to days. In this way, the brain adjusts
its performance and control of behavior in response to a
changing environment.
Hormones are important agents of protection and
adaptation, but stress and stress hormones, such as the
glucocorticoid cortisol, can also alter brain function,
including the brain’s capacity to learn. Severe and prolonged
stress can impair the ability of the brain to function

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normally for a period of time, but the brain is also capable of
remarkable recovery.
Reproduction in females is a good example of a regular,
cyclic process driven by circulating hormones and involving
a feedback loop: The neurons in the hypothalamus produce
gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), a peptide that
acts on cells in the pituitary. In both males and females,
this causes two hormones — the follicle-stimulating hormone
(FSH) and the luteinizing hormone (LH) — to be released
into the bloodstream. In females, these hormones act on
the ovary to stimulate ovulation and promote release of
the ovarian hormones estradiol and progesterone. In males,
these hormones are carried to receptors on cells in the testes,
where they promote spermatogenesis and release the male
hormone testosterone, an androgen, into the bloodstream.
Testosterone, estrogen, and progesterone are often referred to
as sex hormones.
In turn, the increased levels of testosterone in males and
estrogen in females act on the hypothalamus and pituitary
to decrease the release of FSH and LH. The increased levels
of sex hormones also induce changes in cell structure and
chemistry, leading to an increased capacity to engage in
sexual behavior. Sex hormones also exert widespread effects
on many other functions of the brain, such as attention,
motor control, pain, mood, and memory.
Sexual differentiation of the brain is caused by sex
hormones acting in fetal and early postnatal life, although
recent evidence suggests genes on either the X or Y
chromosome may also contribute to this process. Scientists
have found statistically and biologically significant
differences between the brains of men and women that are
similar to sex differences found in experimental animals.
These include differences in the size and shape of brain
structures in the hypothalamus and the arrangement of
neurons in the cortex and hippocampus. Sex differences go
well beyond sexual behavior and reproduction and affect
many brain regions and functions, ranging from mechanisms
for perceiving pain and dealing with stress to strategies for
solving cognitive problems. That said, however, the brains of
men and women are more similar than they are different.
Anatomical differences have also been reported between
the brains of heterosexual and homosexual men. Research
suggests that hormones and genes act early in life to shape
the brain in terms of sex-related differences in structure
and function, but scientists are still putting together all the
pieces of this puzzle.

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Gases and Other unusual Neurotransmitters
Scientists have identified a new class of neurotransmitters
that are gases. These molecules — nitric oxide and carbon
monoxide — do not act like other neurotransmitters. Being
gases, they are not stored in any structure, certainly not in
storage structures for classical and peptide transmitters. Instead,
they are made by enzymes as they are needed and released
from neurons by diffusion. Rather than acting at receptor sites,
these gases simply diffuse into adjacent neurons and act upon
chemical targets, which may be enzymes.

Working in tandem with
the rest of the nervous system,
the brain sends and receives
messages, allowing for
ongoing communication.

Although exact functions for carbon monoxide have
not been determined, nitric oxide has already been shown
to play several important roles. For example, nitric oxide
neurotransmission governs erection in the penis. In nerves
of the intestine, it governs the relaxation that contributes
to the normal movements of digestion. In the brain, nitric
oxide is the major regulator of the intracellular messenger
molecule cyclic GMP. In conditions of excess glutamate
release, as occurs in stroke, neuronal damage following the
stroke may be attributable in part to nitric oxide.
Lipid Messengers In addition to gases, which
act rapidly, the brain also derives signals from lipids.
Prostaglandins are a class of compounds made from lipids
by an enzyme called cyclooxygenase. These very small and
short-lived molecules have powerful effects, including the
induction of a fever and the generation of pain in response
to inflammation. Aspirin reduces a fever and lowers pain
by inhibiting the cyclooxygenase enzyme. A second class of
membrane-derived messenger is the brain’s own marijuana,

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referred to as endocannabinoids, because they are in essence
cannabis made by the brain. These messengers control the
release of neurotransmitters, usually by inhibiting them,
and can also affect the immune system and other cellular
parameters still being discovered. Endocannabinoids play an
important role in the control of behaviors. They increase in
the brain under stressful conditions.
Second Messengers After the action of
neurotransmitters at their receptors, biochemical
communication within cells is still possible. Substances that
trigger such communication are called second messengers.
Second messengers convey the chemical message of
a neurotransmitter (the first messenger) from the cell
membrane to the cell’s internal biochemical machinery.
Second messenger effects may endure for a few milliseconds
to as long as many minutes. They also may be responsible for
long-term changes in the nervous system.
An example of the initial step in the activation of a
second messenger system involves adenosine triphosphate
(ATP), the chemical source of energy in cells. ATP is present
throughout the cytoplasm of all cells. For example, when
norepinephrine binds to its receptors on the surface of the
neuron, the activated receptor binds a G protein on the
inside of the membrane. The activated G protein causes the
enzyme adenylyl cyclase to convert ATP to cyclic adenosine
monophosphate (cAMP), the second messenger. Rather than
acting as a messenger between one neuron and another, cAMP
exerts a variety of influences within the cell, ranging from
changes in the function of ion channels in the membrane to
changes in the expression of genes in the nucleus.
Second messengers also are thought to play a role in
the manufacture and release of neurotransmitters and in
intracellular movements and carbohydrate metabolism in the
cerebrum — the largest part of the brain, consisting of two
hemispheres. Second messengers also are involved in growth
and development processes. In addition, the direct effects
of second messengers on the genetic material of cells may
lead to long-term alterations in cellular functioning and,
ultimately, to changes in behavior.
The intricate communication systems in the brain and
the nervous system begin to develop about three weeks after
gestation. How this process unfolds and how it is relevant to
an understanding of brain-based conditions and illnesses are
discussed in Chapter 2.

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The Journey of Nerve Cells

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Critical Periods

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Plasticity

The amazing capabilities of the human brain arise from
exquisitely intricate communication among its billions
of interacting brain cells. Although the specific patterns
of connectivity are forged by the ever-changing interplay
between a person’s genes and his specific environment,
much of the development of brain cells occurs during the
prenatal period. Understanding the processes underlying
how brain cells are formed, become specialized, travel to
their appropriate location, and connect to each other in
increasingly elaborate adaptive networks is the central
challenge of developmental neurobiology.
Advances in the study of brain development have
become increasingly relevant for medical treatments.
For example, several diseases that most scientists
once thought were purely disorders of adult function,
such as schizophrenia, are now being considered in
developmental terms; that is, such disorders may occur
because pathways and connections to the brain did
not form correctly early in life. Other research suggests
that genes important for brain development may also
play a role in susceptibility to autism spectrum disorders.
And by applying knowledge about how connections
form during development, regeneration following injury
to the brain is now viewed as a future possibility.
Knowing how the brain is constructed is essential for
understanding its ability to reorganize in response to external
influences or injury. As the brain evolves from the embryo
to the adult stage, unique attributes evolve during infancy
and childhood that contribute to differences in learning
ability as well as vulnerability to specific brain disorders.
Neuroscientists are beginning to discover some general

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principles that underlie developmental processes, many of
which overlap in time.

The Journey of Nerve Cells
The development of neurons occurs through a delicate
process. Signaling molecules “turn on” certain genes and “turn
off” others, beginning the process of nerve cell induction.
Even more astonishing is that this process takes place as the
embryo is developing. Induction and proliferation are followed
by migration, during which the newly formed neurons travel
to their final destination. Throughout life, the nervous system
is active, making new connections and fine-tuning the way
messages are sent and received. The activities of the everchanging nervous system are explained in more detail in the
following sections.
Induction During the early stages of embryonic
development, three layers emerge — the endoderm, the
ectoderm, and the mesoderm. These layers undergo many
interactions to grow into organ, bone, muscle, skin, or
nerve tissue. How does this process of differentiation occur,
especially since each cell contains 25,000 genes, the entire
sequence of DNA instructions for development? The answer
lies in signaling molecules released by the mesoderm. These
molecules turn on certain genes and turn off others, triggering
some ectoderm cells to become nerve tissue in a process called
neural induction. Subsequent signaling interactions further
refine the nerve tissue into the basic categories of neurons or
glia (support cells), then into subclasses of each cell type. The
remaining cells of the ectoderm, which have not received the
signaling molecules diffusing from the mesoderm, become skin.
The proximity of cells to the signaling molecules largely
determines their fate. That’s because the concentration of
these molecules spreads out and weakens the farther it moves
from its source. For example, a particular signaling molecule,
called sonic hedgehog, is secreted from mesodermal tissue
lying beneath the developing spinal cord. As a result, the
adjacent nerve cells are converted into a specialized class of
glia. Cells that are farther away, however, are exposed to lower
concentrations of sonic hedgehog, so they become the motor
neurons that control muscles. An even lower concentration
promotes the formation of interneurons, which relay messages
to other neurons, not muscles. Interestingly, the mechanism of

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The human brain and nervous system begin to develop at about three weeks’ gestation with the closing of the neural tube (left image). By four weeks, major
regions of the human brain can be recognized in primitive form, including the forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain, and optic vesicle, from which the eye develops.
Ridges, or convolutions, can be seen by six months.

this basic signaling molecule is very similar in species as diverse
as flies and humans.
Migration Once neural induction has occurred, the
next step for new neurons is a journey to the proper position
in the brain. This process is called migration, and it begins
three to four weeks after a human baby is conceived. At
this time, the ectoderm starts to thicken and build up along
the middle. As the cells continue to divide, a flat neural
plate grows, followed by the formation of parallel ridges,
similar to the creases in a paper airplane, that rise across its
surface. Within a few days, the ridges fold in toward each
other and fuse to form a hollow neural tube. The top of the
tube thickens into three bulges that form the hindbrain, the
midbrain, and the forebrain. Later in the process, at week
seven, the first signs of the eyes and the brain’s hemispheres
appear. As neurons are produced, they move from the neural
tube’s ventricular zone, or inner surface, to near the border of
the marginal zone, or outer surface.
After neurons stop dividing, they form an intermediate
zone, where they gradually accumulate as the brain develops.
The neurons then migrate to their final destination— with
the help of a variety of guidance mechanisms. The most
common guidance mechanism, accounting for about 90
percent of migration in humans, are glia, which project
radially from the intermediate zone to the cortex. In this way,
glia provide a temporary scaffolding for ushering neurons to
their destination. This process of radial migration occurs in an
“inside-out” manner; that is, the cells that arrive the earliest
(the oldest ones) form the deepest layer of the cortex, whereas

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the late-arriving (the youngest) neurons form the outermost
layer. Through another mechanism, inhibitory interneurons,
small neurons with short pathways usually found in the central
nervous system, migrate tangentially across the brain.
Migration is a delicate process and can be affected by
different factors. External forces, such as alcohol, cocaine,
or radiation, can prevent proper migration, resulting in
misplacement of cells, which may lead to mental retardation
or epilepsy. Furthermore, mutations in genes that regulate
migration have been shown to cause some rare genetic forms
of retardation and epilepsy in humans.

Making Connections Once the neurons reach their
final location, they must make the proper connections so
that a particular function, such as vision or hearing, can
emerge. Unlike induction, proliferation, and migration, which
occur internally during fetal development, the next phases of
brain development are increasingly dependent on interactions
with the environment. After birth and beyond, such activities
as listening to a voice, responding to a toy, and even the
reaction evoked by the temperature in the room lead to more
connections among neurons.
Neurons become interconnected through (1) the growth
of dendrites — extensions of the cell body that receive signals
from other neurons and (2) the growth of axons — extensions
from the neuron that can carry signals to other neurons.
Axons enable connections between neurons at considerable
distances, sometimes at the opposite side of the brain, to
develop. In the case of motor neurons, the axon may travel
from the spinal cord all the way down to a foot muscle.

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shown to guide neurons around the worm’s “nerve ring.”
Later, vertebrate netrins were found to guide axons around
the mammalian spinal cord. Receptors for netrins were then
found in worms, a discovery that proved to be invaluable in
finding the corresponding, and related, human receptors.
Once axons reach their targets, they form connections
with other cells at synapses. At the synapse, the electrical
signal of the sending axon is transmitted by chemical
neurotransmitters to the receiving dendrites of another
neuron, where they can either provoke or prevent the
generation of a new signal. The regulation of this transmission
at synapses and the integration of inputs from the thousands
of synapses each neuron receives are responsible for the
astounding information-processing capacity of the brain.
For processing to occur properly, the connections
must be highly specific. Some specificity arises from the
mechanisms that guide each axon to its proper target area.
Additional molecules mediate target recognition when
the axon chooses the proper neuron. They often also
mediate the proper part of the target once the axon arrives
at its destination. Over the past few years, several of these
recognition molecules have been identified. Dendrites also
are actively involved in the process
of initiating contact with axons and
recruiting proteins to the “postsynaptic”
side of the synapse.
Researchers have successfully
identified ways in which the synapse
differentiates once contact has been made.
The tiny portion of the axon that contacts
the dendrite becomes specialized for the
release of neurotransmitters, and the tiny
portion of the dendrite that receives the
contact becomes specialized to receive and
respond to the signal. Special molecules
pass between the sending and receiving
cells to ensure that the contact is formed
properly and that the sending and receiving
specializations are matched precisely.
These processes ensure that the synapse
can transmit signals quickly and effectively.
Finally, still other molecules coordinate
the maturation of the synapse after it has
This is a cross-sectional view of the occipital lobe, which processes vision, of a three-month-old monkey
formed so that it can accommodate the
fetus brain. The center shows immature neurons migrating along glial fibers. These neurons make
changes that occur as our bodies mature
transient connections with other neurons before reaching their destination. A single migrating neuron,
and our behavior changes. Defects in some
shown about 2,500 times its actual size (right), uses a glial fiber as a guiding scaffold.
Growth cones, enlargements on the axon’s tip, actively
explore the environment as they seek out their precise
destination. Researchers have discovered many special
molecules that help guide growth cones. Some molecules
lie on the cells that growth cones contact, whereas others
are released from sources found near the growth cone. The
growth cones, in turn, bear molecules that serve as receptors
for the environmental cues. The binding of particular signals
with receptors tells the growth cone whether to move
forward, stop, recoil, or change direction. These signaling
molecules include proteins with names such as netrin,
semaphorin, and ephrin. In most cases, these are families of
related molecules; for example, researchers have identified at
least fifteen semaphorins and at least nine ephrins.
Perhaps the most remarkable finding is that most of
these proteins are common to many organisms—worms,
insects, and mammals, including humans. Each protein
family is smaller in flies or worms than in mice or people,
but its functions are quite similar. As a result, it has been
possible to use the simpler animals as experimental models
to gain knowledge that can be applied directly to humans.
For example, the first netrin was discovered in a worm and

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of these molecules are now thought to make people susceptible
to disorders such as autism. The loss of other molecules may
underlie the degradation of synapses that occurs during aging.
A combination of signals also determines the type of
neurotransmitters that a neuron will use to communicate
with other cells. For some cells, such as motor neurons, the
type of neurotransmitter is fixed, but for other neurons, it is
not. Scientists found that when certain immature neurons
are maintained in a dish with no other cell types, they
produce the neurotransmitter norepinephrine. In contrast, if
the same neurons are maintained with specific cells, such as
cardiac, or heart, tissue, they produce the neurotransmitter
acetylcholine. Just as genes turn on and off signals to regulate
the development of specialized cells, a similar process leads
to the production of specific neurotransmitters. Many
researchers believe that the signal to engage the gene, and
therefore the final determination of the chemical messengers
that a neuron produces, is influenced by factors coming from
the location of the synapse itself.

Neurons communicate with electrical and chemical signals at special
contact points called synapses. [Credit: Meagan A. Jenkins, et al., The Journal of
Neuroscience 2010, 30(15): 5125-5135]

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Myelination Insulation covering wires preserves
the strength of the electrical signals that travel through
them. The myelin sheath covering axons serves a similar
purpose. Myelination, the wrapping of axons by extensions
of glia, increases the speed at which signals may be sent
from one neuron to another by a factor of up to 100x. This
advantage is due to how the sheath is wrapped. In between
the myelin are gaps, called nodes of Ranvier, that are not
covered in myelin. The electrical signal moves faster over
the insulated portion, jumping from one node to another.
This phenomenon, known as saltatory conduction (the word
“saltatory” means “to jump”), is responsible for the rapid
transmission of electrical signals. The process of myelination
occurs throughout the lifespan.
Paring Back After growth, the neural network is
pared back to create a more efficient system. Only about
half the neurons generated during development survive to
function in the adult. Entire populations of neurons are
removed through apoptosis, programmed cell death initiated
in the cells. Apoptosis is activated if a neuron loses its
battle with other neurons to receive life-sustaining chemical
signals called trophic factors. These factors are produced
in limited quantities by target tissues. Each type of trophic
factor supports the survival of a distinct group of neurons.
For example, nerve growth factor is important for sensory
neuron survival. Recently, it has become clear that apoptosis
is maintained into adulthood and constantly held in check.
On the basis of this idea, researchers have found that injuries
and some neurodegenerative diseases kill neurons not by
directly inflicting damage but rather by activating the cells’
own death programs. This discovery — and its implication
that death need not follow insult — have led to new avenues
for therapy.
Brain cells also form excess connections at first. For
example, in primates, the projections from the two eyes
to the brain initially overlap and then sort out to separate
territories devoted to one eye or the other. Furthermore, in
the young primate cerebral cortex, the connections between
neurons are greater in number and twice as dense as those
in an adult primate. Communication between neurons
with chemical and electrical signals is necessary to weed
out the connections. The connections that are active and
generating electrical currents survive, whereas those with
little or no activity are lost. Thus, the circuits of the adult
brain are formed, at least in part, by sculpting away incorrect
connections to leave only the correct ones.

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Critical Periods
Genes and the environment converge powerfully
during early sensitive windows of brain development to form
the neural circuits underlying behavior. Although most
neuronal cell death occurs in the embryo, the paring down
of connections occurs in large part during critical periods
in early postnatal life. During these moments in time, the
developing nervous system must obtain certain critical
experiences, such as sensory, movement, or emotional input,
to mature properly. Such periods are characterized by high
learning rates as well as enduring consequences for neuronal
connectivity.
After a critical period, connections diminish in number
and are less subject to change, but the ones that remain are
stronger, more reliable, and more precise. These turn into
the unique variety of sensory, motor, or cognitive “maps”
that best reflect our world. It is important to note that
there are multiple critical periods, organized sequentially,
as individual brain functions are established. The last step
in the creation of an adult human brain, the frontal lobes,
whose function includes judgment, insight, and impulse
control, continues into the early 20s. Thus, even the brain of
an adolescent is not completely mature.
Injury or deprivation of environmental input occurring
at specific stages of postnatal life can dramatically reshape
the underlying circuit development, which becomes
increasingly more difficult to correct later in life. In one
experiment, a monkey raised from birth to 6 months of age
with one eyelid closed permanently lost useful vision in that
eye because of diminished use. This gives cellular meaning
to the saying “use it or lose it.” Loss of vision is caused by the
actual loss of functional connections between that eye and
neurons in the visual cortex. This finding has led to earlier
and better treatment for the eye disorders of congenital
cataracts and “lazy eye” in children. Similarly, cochlear
implants introduced in infancy are most effective in restoring
hearing to the congenitally deaf. Cognitive recovery from
social deprivation, brain damage, or stroke is also greatest
early in life. Conversely, research suggests that enriched
environments or stimulation may bolster brain development,
as revealed by animals raised in toy-filled surroundings. They
have more branches on their neurons and more connections
than isolated animals.
Many people have observed that children can learn
languages or develop musical ability (absolute pitch) with

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greater proficiency than adults. Heightened activity in the
critical period may, however, also contribute to an increased
incidence of certain disorders in childhood, such as epilepsy.
Fortunately, as brain activity subsides, many types of epilepsy
fade away by adulthood.

Plasticity
The ability of the brain to modify itself and adapt to
challenges of the environment is referred to as plasticity.
Plasticity itself is not unique to humans, but the degree to
which our brains are able to adapt is the defining attribute
of our species. Plasticity can be categorized as experienceexpectant or experience-dependent.
Experience-expectant plasticity refers to the integration
of environmental stimuli into the normal patterns of
development. Certain environmental exposures during limited
critical, or sensitive, periods of development are essential for
healthy maturation. For example, finches need to hear adult
songs before sexual maturation in order for them to learn to
sing at a species-appropriate level of intricacy.
Scientists hope that new insight into brain development
will lead to treatments for those with learning disabilities,
brain damage, and neurodegenerative disorders, as well
as help us understand aging. If we can figure out a way
to lift the brakes that restrict adult plasticity — either
pharmacologically or by circuit rewiring — it may be possible
to correct damage done through mistimed critical periods
or other means. By understanding normal functions of the
brain during each developmental stage, researchers hope to
develop better age-specific therapies for brain disorders.
This chapter discussed how cells differentiate so that
they can perform specific functions, such as seeing and
hearing. Those are just two of the senses we rely on to learn
about the world. The senses of taste, smell, and touch also
provide key information. Through intricate systems and
networks, the brain and the nervous system work together
to process these sensory inputs. Part 2, called Sensing,
Thinking, and Behaving, describes how these systems work
and complement each other. It begins with a look at senses
and perception.

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Vision

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Hearing

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Taste and Smell

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Touch and Pain

Vision
The wonderful sense of sight allows us to experience
the world, from the genius of Michelangelo’s Sistine Chapel
ceiling to the mist-filled vista of a mountain range. Vision
is one of our most delicate and complicated senses. Many
processes must occur simultaneously in order for us to see
what is happening around us. Information about image size
and shape, color, motion, and location in space all must be
gathered, encoded, integrated, and processed. Performing
these activities involves about 30 percent of the human
brain — more than for any other sense.
Vision has been studied intensively. As a result,
neuroscientists may know more about it than any other
sensory system. Most information about initial stages of
visual transduction, or how light is converted into electrical
signals, comes from studies of Drosophila (fruit flies) and
mice, whereas visual processing has been mostly studied in
monkeys and cats.

It all Starts with Light Vision begins with light
passing through the cornea, which does about three-quarters
of the focusing, and then the lens, which adjusts the focus.
Both combine to produce a clear image of the visual world
on a sheet of photoreceptors called the retina, which is part of
the central nervous system but located at the back of the eye.
Photoreceptors gather visual information by absorbing
light and sending electrical signals to other retinal neurons
for initial processing and integration. The signals are then
sent via the optic nerve to other parts of brain, which
ultimately processes the image and allows us to see.

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As in a camera, the image on the retina is reversed: Objects
to the right of center project images to the left part of the retina
and vice versa; objects above the center project to the lower
part and vice versa. The size of the pupil, which regulates how
much light enters the eye, is controlled by the iris. The shape
of the lens is altered by the muscles just behind the iris so that
near or far objects can be brought into focus on the retina.
Primates, including humans, have well-developed vision
using two eyes, called binocular vision. Visual signals pass from
each eye along the million or so fibers of the optic nerve to the
optic chiasm, where some nerve fibers cross over. This crossover
allows both sides of the brain to receive signals from both eyes.
When you look at a scene with both eyes, the objects to
your left register on the right side of the retina. This visual
information then maps to the right side of the cortex. The result
is that the left half of the scene you are watching registers in
the cerebrum’s right hemisphere. Conversely, the right half of
the scene registers in the cerebrum’s left hemisphere. A similar
arrangement applies to movement and touch: Each half of the
cerebrum is responsible for processing information received
from the opposite half of the body.
Scientists know much about the way cells encode visual
information in the retina, but relatively less about the lateral
geniculate nucleus — an intermediate way station between the
retina and visual cortex — and the visual cortex. Studies about
the inner workings of the retina give us the best knowledge we
have to date about how the brain analyzes and processes sensory
information.
Photoreceptors, about 125 million in each human eye,
are neurons specialized to turn light into electrical signals.
Two major types of photoreceptors are rods and cones. Rods are
extremely sensitive to light and allow us to see in dim light,
but they do not convey color. Rods constitute 95 percent of all
photoreceptors in humans. Most of our vision, however, comes
from cones that work under most light conditions and are
responsible for acute detail and color vision.
The human eye contains three types of cones (red,
green and blue), each sensitive to a different range of colors.
Because their sensitivities overlap, cones work in combination
to convey information about all visible colors. You might be
surprised to know that we can see thousands of colors using
only three types of cones, but computer monitors use a similar

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input from many cells in the previous layer,
and the number of inputs varies widely
across the retina. Near the center of the gaze,
where visual acuity is highest, each ganglion
cell receives inputs — via the middle layer
— from one cone or, at most, a few, allowing
us to resolve very fine details. Near the
margins of the retina, each ganglion cell
receives signals from many rods and cones,
explaining why we cannot see fine details
on either side. Whether large or small, the
region of visual space providing input to a
visual neuron is called its receptive field.

how Visual Information Is
Processed About 60 years ago,
scientists discovered that each vision cell’s
receptive field is activated when light hits
a tiny region in the center of the field
and inhibited when light hits the area
surrounding the center. If light covers the
entire receptive field, the cell responds
weakly. Thus, the visual process begins by
comparing the amount of light striking any
small region of the retina with the amount
of surrounding light.
Visual information from the retina
is
relayed
through the lateral geniculate
Vision begins with light passing through the cornea and the lens, which combine to produce a clear
nucleus of the thalamus to the primary
image of the visual world on a sheet of photoreceptors called the retina. As in a camera, the image
on the retina is reversed: Objects above the center project to the lower part and vice versa. The
visual cortex — a thin sheet of tissue (less
information from the retina — in the form of electrical signals — is sent via the optic nerve to other
than one-tenth of an inch thick), a bit
parts of the brain, which ultimately process the image and allow us to see.
larger than a half-dollar, which is located
in the occipital lobe in the back of the
process to generate a spectrum of colors. The central part of the
brain. The primary visual cortex is densely packed with
human retina, where light is focused, is called the fovea, which
cells in many layers, just as the retina is. In its middle layer,
contains only red and green cones. The area around the fovea,
which receives messages from the lateral geniculate nucleus,
called the macula, is critical for reading and driving. Death of
scientists have found responses similar to those seen in
photoreceptors in the macula, called macular degeneration, is
the retina and in lateral geniculate cells. Cells above and
a leading cause of blindness among the elderly population in
below this layer respond differently. They prefer stimuli in
developed countries, including the United States.
the shape of bars or edges and those at a particular angle
The retina contains three organized layers of neurons.
(orientation). Further studies have shown that different
The rod and cone photoreceptors in the first layer send signals
cells prefer edges at different angles or edges moving in a
to the middle layer (interneurons), which then relays signals
particular direction.
to the third layer, consisting of multiple different types of
Although the visual processing mechanisms are not
ganglion cells, specialized neurons near the inner surface of the
yet completely understood, recent findings from anatomical
retina. The axons of the ganglion cells form the optic nerve.
and physiological studies in monkeys suggest that visual
Each neuron in the middle and third layer typically receives

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signals are fed into at least three separate processing
systems. One system appears to process information mainly
about shape; a second, mainly about color; and a third,
movement, location, and spatial organization. Human
psychological studies support the findings obtained through
animal research. These studies show that the perception of
movement, depth, perspective, the relative size of objects,
the relative movement of objects, shading, and gradations in
texture all depend primarily on contrasts in light intensity
rather than on color. Perception requires various elements to
be organized so that related ones are grouped together. This
stems from the brain’s ability to group the parts of an image
together and also to separate images from one another and
from their individual backgrounds.
How do all these systems combine to produce the vivid
images of solid objects that we perceive? The brain extracts
biologically relevant information at each stage and associates
firing patterns of neuronal populations with past experience.

Research Leads to More effective Treatment
Vision studies also have led to better treatment for visual
disorders. Information from research in cats and monkeys has
improved the therapy for strabismus, a condition in which

the eyes are not properly aligned with each other and point
in different directions. It is also termed squint, cross-eye, or
walleye. Children with strabismus initially have good vision in
each eye. But because they cannot fuse the images in the two
eyes, they tend to favor one eye and often lose useful vision in
the other. Vision can be restored in such cases, but only during
infancy or early childhood. Beyond the age of 8 or so, the
blindness in one eye becomes permanent. Until a few decades
ago, ophthalmologists waited until children reached the age
of 4 before operating to align the eyes, prescribing exercises, or
using an eye patch. Now strabismus is corrected very early in
life — before age 4 — when normal vision can still be restored.
Extensive genetic studies and use of model organisms
have allowed us to identify defects in inherited eye diseases,
making it possible to design gene or stem cell-based therapy
and discover new drugs for treatment. Loss of function or death
of photoreceptors appears to be a major cause of blindness
in many diseases that are currently incurable. Recently, gene
therapy for a small group of patients with severe blindness
allowed them to see. Work also is in progress to bypass lost
photoreceptors and send electrical signals directly to the brain
via ganglion cells.

hearing

Mutations in the RPe65 protein (labeled in retinal cells in red) cause an
inherited form of blindness that may be corrected by gene therapy. [Credit:
National eye Institute, National Institutes of health]

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Often considered the most important sense for humans,
hearing allows us to communicate with each other by receiving
sounds and interpreting speech. Hearing also gives information
vital to survival; for instance, by alerting us to an approaching
car, it enables us to get out of harm’s way.
Like the visual system, our hearing system picks up
several qualities in the signals it detects (for example, a
sound’s location, its loudness, and its pitch). Our hearing
system does not blend the frequencies of different sounds, as
the visual system does when different wavelengths of light
are mixed to produce color. Instead, it separates complex
sounds into their component tones or frequencies so that
we can follow different voices or instruments as we listen to
conversations or to music.
Whether from the chirping of crickets or the roar of a
rocket engine, sound waves are collected by the external ear
— the pinna and the external auditory canal — and funneled
to the tympanic membrane (eardrum) to make it vibrate.
Attached to the tympanic membrane, the malleus (hammer)
transmits the vibration to the incus (anvil), which passes the
vibration on to the stapes (stirrup). The stapes pushes on the
oval window, which separates the air-filled middle ear from the

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Sound waves are collected by the external ear
— the pinna and the external auditory canal —
and funneled to the tympanic membrane
(eardrum) to make it vibrate. Attached to the
tympanic membrane, the malleus (hammer)
transmits the vibration to the incus (anvil),
which passes the vibration on to the stapes
(stirrup). hair cells convert the mechanical
vibration to electrical signals, which in turn
excite the 30,000 fibers of the auditory nerve.
The auditory nerve then carries the signals to
the brainstem. From there, nerve fibers send the
information to the auditory cortex, the part of
the brain involved in perceiving sound.

fluid-filled inner ear to produce pressure waves in the inner ear’s
snail-shaped cochlea. The separation of frequencies occurs in the
cochlea, which is tuned along its length to different frequencies,
so that a high note causes one region of the cochlea’s basilar
membrane to vibrate, while a lower note has the same effect on
a different region of the basilar membrane.
Riding on the vibrating basilar membrane are hair cells
topped with microscopic bundles of hairlike stereocilia, which
are deflected by the overlying tectorial membrane. Hair cells
convert the mechanical vibration to electrical signals, which in
turn excite the 30,000 fibers of the auditory nerve. The auditory
nerve then carries the signals to the brainstem. Because each
hair cell rides on a different part of the basilar membrane, each
responds to a different frequency. As a result, each nerve fiber
carries information about a different frequency to the brain.
Auditory information is analyzed by multiple brain centers as it
flows to the superior temporal gyrus, or auditory cortex, the part
of the brain involved in perceiving sound.
In the auditory cortex, adjacent neurons tend to respond to
tones of similar frequency. However, they specialize in different
combinations of tones. Some respond to pure tones, such as

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those produced by a flute, and some to complex sounds like
those made by a violin. Some respond to long sounds and some
to short, and some to sounds that rise or fall in frequency. Other
neurons might combine information from these specialist
neurons to recognize a word or an instrument.
Sound is processed in different regions of the auditory
cortex on both sides of the brain. However, for most people,
the left side is specialized for perceiving and producing speech.
Damage to the left auditory cortex, such as from a stroke, can
leave someone able to hear but unable to understand language.

Taste and Smell
Although most of us don’t think of it in this way, the
related senses of taste and smell help us interpret the chemical
world. Just as sound is the perception of changes in air pressure
and sight the perception of light, tastes and smells are the
perception of chemicals in the air or in our food. Separate
senses with their own receptor organs, taste and smell are
nonetheless intimately entwined.
This close relationship is most apparent in how we
perceive the flavors of food. As anyone with a head cold

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and on to a specific area of the cerebral
cortex, which makes us conscious of the
perception of taste.
Airborne odor molecules, called
odorants, are detected by specialized
sensory neurons located in a small patch
of mucus membrane lining the roof of the
nose. Axons of these sensory cells pass
through perforations in the overlying bone
and enter two elongated olfactory bulbs lying
against the underside of the frontal lobe of
the brain.
Odorants stimulate receptor proteins
found on hairlike cilia at the tips of the
sensory cells, a process that initiates a
neural response. An odorant acts on
more than one receptor, but does so to
varying degrees. Similarly, a single receptor
interacts with more than one different
odorant, though also to varying degrees.
Therefore, each odorant has its own pattern
of activity, which is set up in the sensory
Taste and smell are separate senses with their own receptor organs, yet they are intimately entwined.
neurons. This pattern of activity is then
Tastants, chemicals in foods, are detected by taste buds, which consist of special sensory cells. When
stimulated, these cells send signals to specific areas of the brain, which make us conscious of the
sent to the olfactory bulb, where other
perception of taste. Similarly, specialized cells in the nose pick up odorants, airborne odor molecules.
neurons are activated to form a spatial map
Odorants stimulate receptor proteins found on hairlike cilia at the tips of the sensory cells, a process that
of the odor. Neural activity created by this
initiates a neural response. ultimately, messages about taste and smell converge, allowing us to detect
the flavors of food.
stimulation passes to the primary olfactory
cortex at the back of the underside, or
can attest, food “tastes” different when the sense of smell is
orbital, part of the frontal lobe. Olfactory
impaired. Actually, what is really being affected is the flavor of
information then passes to adjacent parts of the orbital cortex,
the food, or the combination of taste and smell. That’s because
where the combination of odor and taste information helps
only the taste, not the food odors, are being detected. Taste itself
create the perception of flavor.
is focused on distinguishing chemicals that have a sweet, salty,
sour, bitter, or umami taste (umami is Japanese for “savory”).
Touch and Pain
However, interactions between the senses of taste and smell
Touch is the sense by which we determine the
enhance our perceptions of the foods we eat.
characteristics of objects: size, shape, and texture. We do this
Tastants, chemicals in foods, are detected by taste buds,
through touch receptors in the skin. In hairy skin areas, some
special structures embedded within small protuberances on the
receptors consist of webs of sensory nerve cell endings wrapped
tongue called papillae. Other taste buds are found in the back of
around the base of hairs. The nerve endings are remarkably
the mouth and on the palate. Every person has between 5,000
sensitive. They can be triggered by the slightest movement of
and 10,000 taste buds. Each taste bud consists of 50 to 100
the hairs.
specialized sensory cells, which are stimulated by tastants such
Signals from touch receptors pass via sensory nerves to
as sugars, salts, or acids. When the sensory cells are stimulated,
the spinal cord, where they synapse, or make contact with,
they cause signals to be transferred to the ends of nerve fibers,
other nerve cells, which in turn send the information to
which send impulses along cranial nerves to taste regions in the
the thalamus and sensory cortex. The transmission of this
brainstem. From here, the impulses are relayed to the thalamus
information is highly topographic, meaning that the body

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Pain messages are picked up by receptors and transmitted to the spinal cord via small myelinated fibers and very small unmyelinated fibers. From the spinal cord,
the impulses are carried to the brainstem, thalamus, and cerebral cortex and ultimately perceived as pain. These messages can be suppressed by a system of
neurons that originates in the midbrain. This descending pathway sends messages to the spinal cord where it suppresses the transmission of tissue damage signals
to the higher brain centers.

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is represented in an orderly fashion at different levels of the
nervous system. Larger areas of the cortex are devoted to
sensations from the hands and lips; much smaller cortical
regions represent less sensitive parts of the body.
Different parts of the body vary in their sensitivity to tactile
and painful stimuli. These varying responses are based largely
on the number and distribution of receptors. For example, the
cornea is several hundred times more sensitive to painful stimuli
than are the soles of the feet. The fingertips are good at touch
discrimination, but the torso is not.
Neurologists measure sensitivity by determining the
patient’s two-point threshold, the distance between two points
on the skin necessary in order for the individual to distinguish
two distinct stimuli from just one. This method involves
touching the skin with calipers at two points. Not surprisingly,
acuity is greatest in the most densely nerve-packed areas of the
body. The threshold is lowest on the fingers and lips.
The sensory fibers that respond to stimuli that damage
tissue and can cause pain are called nociceptors. Different
nociceptor subsets produce molecules that are responsible for
the response to noxious (i.e., painful) thermal, mechanical,
or chemical stimulation. Interestingly, these same molecules
respond to plant-derived chemicals, such as capsaicin, garlic,
and wasabi, that can produce pain. Some nociceptors in the
skin respond to chemical stimuli that cause itch. Histamine
is an example of such a nociceptor, and it can be released in
response to certain bug bites or allergies.
Tissue injury also causes the release of numerous chemicals
at the site of damage and inflammation. Prostaglandins enhance
the sensitivity of receptors to tissue damage and ultimately
can induce more intense pain sensations. Prostaglandins also
contribute to the clinical condition of allodynia, in which
innocuous stimuli can produce pain, as when sunburned skin is
touched.
Persistent injury can lead to changes in the nervous system
that amplify and prolong the “pain” signal. The result is a
state of hypersensitivity in which pain persists and can even
be evoked by normally innocuous stimuli. Persistent pain is
in many respects a disease of the nervous system, not merely a
symptom of some other disease process.

Sending and Receiving Pain and Itch
Messages Pain and itch messages are transmitted to the
spinal cord via small, myelinated fibers and C fibers, very small,
unmyelinated fibers. The myelinated nerve fibers are very painsensitive, and they probably evoke the sharp, fast pain that is

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produced by, for example, a pinprick. C fiber-induced pain, by
contrast, is generally slower in onset, dull, and more diffuse.
In the ascending system, impulses are relayed from the
spinal cord to several brain structures, including the thalamus
and cerebral cortex. These structures are involved in the process
by which pain or itch messages become a conscious experience.
The experience of pain or itch is not just a function of the
magnitude of the injury or even the intensity of the impulse
activity generated. Other factors, such as the setting in which
the injury occurs (e.g., in childbirth or in a car accident), as well
as the emotional impact, also determine our overall response to
the experience.
Pain messages can be suppressed by systems of neurons
that originate within the gray matter in the brainstem. These
descending systems suppress the transmission of pain signals
from the dorsal horn of the spinal cord to higher brain centers.
Some of these descending systems use naturally occurring
chemicals, the endogenous opioids, or endorphins, which are
functionally similar to morphine. Recent findings indicating
that endorphins act at multiple opioid receptors in the brain
and spinal cord have had important implications for pain
therapy. For example, scientists began studying how to deliver
opioids into the spine after discovering a dense distribution
of opioid receptors in the spinal cord horn. After a technique
for delivering opioids into the spine was used successfully in
animals, such treatments were begun in humans; the technique
is now common in treating pain after surgery.
Modern imaging tools are used to help scientists
better understand what happens in the brain when pain is
experienced. One finding is that no single area in the brain
generates pain; rather, emotional and sensory components
together constitute a mosaic of activity leading to pain.
Interestingly, when people are hypnotized so that a painful
stimulus is not experienced as unpleasant, activity in only some
areas of the brain is suppressed, showing that the stimulus is still
experienced. It just doesn’t hurt anymore. As such techniques
for brain study improve, it should be possible to monitor the
changes in the brain that occur in people with persistent pain
more effectively and to better evaluate the different painkilling
drugs being developed.
Processing information from the sensory systems is only
one of many functions of the brain. Such information is often
the first step in other brain activities, including learning and
retaining knowledge. The next chapter discusses what we
know about these key functions as well as where gaps in our
understanding remain.

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chaPter
haPter 4:
learNiNg, MeMory, aNd laNguage
in

this

chapter

n

Learning and Memory

n

Language

Learning and Memory
A major breakthrough in understanding how the
brain accomplishes learning and memory began with the
study of a person known by his initials, H.M. As a child,
H.M. developed a severe, difficult-to-treat form of epilepsy.
When traditional therapies didn’t help, H.M. underwent
an experimental surgical treatment — the removal of the
medial regions of his temporal lobes. The surgery worked in
that it greatly alleviated the seizures, but it left H.M. with
severe amnesia. He could remember recent events for only
a few minutes and was unable to form explicit memories of
new experiences. For example, after talking with him for a
while and then leaving the room, upon returning, it would
be clear that H.M. had no recollection of the exchange.
Despite his inability to remember new information,
H.M. remembered his childhood very well. From these
unexpected observations, researchers concluded that the
parts of H.M.’s medial temporal lobe that were removed,
including the hippocampus and parahippocampal region,
played critical roles in converting short-term memories of
experiences to long-term, permanent ones. Because H.M.
retained some memories of events that occurred long before
his surgery, it appeared that the medial temporal region was
not the site of permanent storage but instead played a role
in the organization and permanent storage of memories
elsewhere in the brain.
Since that time, scientists have learned that
the medial temporal region is closely connected to
widespread areas of the cerebral cortex, including the
regions responsible for thinking and language. Whereas
the medial temporal region is important for forming,

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organizing, consolidating, and retrieving memory, it
is the cortical areas that are important for long-term
storage of detailed knowledge about facts and events and
how this knowledge is used in everyday situations.

Different Facets of Memory Our ability to learn
and consciously remember everyday facts and events is called
declarative memory. Studies using functional brain imaging
have identified a large network of areas in the cerebral
cortex that work together with the hippocampus to support
declarative memory. These cortical areas play a distinct
role in complex aspects of perception, movement, emotion,
and cognition, each of which contributes to the overall
experiences captured in declarative memories.
When we have new experiences, information initially
enters working memory, a transient form of declarative
memory. Working memory depends on the prefrontal

Different areas and systems of the brain are responsible for different kinds of
memory. The hippocampus, parahippocampal region, and areas of the cerebral
cortex (including the prefrontal cortex) work together to support declarative, or
cognitive, memory. Different forms of nondeclarative, or behavioral, memory are
supported by the amygdala, striatum, and cerebellum.

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cortex as well as other cerebral cortical areas. Studies on
animals have shown that neurons in the prefrontal cortex
maintain relevant information during working memory and
can combine different kinds of sensory information when
required. In humans, the prefrontal cortex is highly activated
when people maintain and manipulate memories.
Distinct areas within the prefrontal cortex support
executive functions, such as selection, rehearsal, and
monitoring of information being retrieved from long-term

Memory involves a persistent
change in synapses, the
connections between neurons.

memory. To serve these functions, the prefrontal cortex also
interacts with a large network of posterior cortical areas that
encode, maintain, and retrieve specific types of information
— visual images, sounds, and words, for example — as well
as where important events occurred and much more.
Semantic memory is a form of declarative knowledge
that includes general facts and data. Although scientists are
just beginning to understand the nature and organization
of cortical areas involved in semantic memory, it appears
that different cortical networks are specialized for processing
particular kinds of information, such as faces, houses, tools,
actions, language, and many other categories of knowledge.
Studies using functional imaging of normal humans
have revealed zones within a large cortical expanse that
selectively process different categories of information, such
as animals, faces, or words.
Our memories of specific personal experiences
that occurred at a particular place and time are called
episodic memories. The medial temporal lobe areas are
generally believed to serve a critical role in the initial
processing and storage of these memories. Studies have
shown that different parts of the parahippocampal

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region play distinct roles in processing “what,” “where,”
and “when” information about specific events. The
hippocampus links these elements of an episodic memory.
The linkages are then integrated back into the various
cortical areas responsible for each type of information.
The fact that H.M. and other people with amnesia show
deficits in some types of memories and not others indicates
that the brain has multiple memory systems supported
by distinct brain regions. Nondeclarative knowledge,
the knowledge of how to do something, often called
procedural memory, is expressed in skilled behavior and
learned habits and requires processing by the basal ganglia
and cerebellum. The cerebellum is specifically involved
in motor tasks that involve coordinated timing. The
amygdala appears to play an important role in the emotional
aspects of memory, attaching emotional significance to
otherwise neutral stimuli and events. The expression of
emotional memories also involves the hypothalamus and
the sympathetic nervous system, both of which support
emotional reactions and feelings. Thus, the brain appears
to process different types of memories in separate ways.

Storing Memories How exactly are memories
stored in brain cells? After years of study, much evidence
supports the idea that memory involves a persistent
change in synapses, the connections between neurons.
In animal studies, researchers found that such changes
occur in the short term through biochemical events that
affect the strength of the relevant synapses. Turning on
certain genes may lead to modifications within neurons
that change the strength and number of synapses,
stabilizing new memories. Researchers studying the
sea slug Aplysia californica, for example, can correlate
specific chemical and structural changes in relevant cells
with several simple forms of memory in the animal.
Another important model for the study of memory is the
phenomenon of long-term potentiation (LTP), a long-lasting
increase in the strength of a synaptic response following
stimulation. LTP occurs prominently in the hippocampus,
as well as in the cerebral cortex and other brain areas
involved in various forms of memory. LTP takes place as
a result of changes in the strength of synapses at contacts
involving N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors.
Subsequently, a series of molecular reactions plays a
vital role in stabilizing the changes in synaptic function
that occur in LTP. These molecular events begin with the
release of calcium ions into the synapse, activating the
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Language
One of the most prominent human
abilities is language, a complex system
involving many components, including
sensory-motor functions and memory
systems. Although language is not fully
understood, scientists have learned a
great deal about this brain function from
studies of patients who have lost speech
and language abilities as a result of a
stroke. Genetic analyses of developmental
disorders of speech and language, as well
as brain imaging studies of normal people,
also have added to our knowledge.
Researchers identified cellular mechanisms of memory by studying the sea slug Aplysia californica.
It has long been known that damage
[Credit: Thomas J. Carew, PhD, New York university]
to different regions within the left
hemisphere produces different kinds of
cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) molecule in
language disorders, or aphasias. Damage to the left frontal
the postsynaptic neuron. This molecule then activates
lobe can produce nonfluent aphasias, such as Broca’s
several kinds of enzymes, some of which increase the
aphasia, a syndrome in which speech production abilities are
number of synaptic receptors, making the synapse more
impaired. Speech output is slow and halting, requires effort,
sensitive to neurotransmitters. In addition, cAMP activates
and often lacks complexity in word or sentence structure.
another molecule, called cAMP-response element binding
Although speaking is impaired, nonfluent aphasics still
protein (CREB). CREB operates within the nucleus of
comprehend heard speech, although structurally complex
the neuron to activate a series of genes, many of which
sentences may be poorly understood.
direct protein synthesis. Among the proteins produced are
Damage to the left temporal lobe can produce
neurotrophins, which result in growth of the synapse and
fluent aphasia, such as Wernicke’s aphasia, in which
an increase in the neuron’s responsiveness to stimulation.
comprehension of heard speech is impaired. Speech output,
Many studies have shown that the molecular cascade
although of normal fluency and speed, is often riddled
leading to protein synthesis is not essential to initial learning
with errors in sound and word selection and tends to be
or to maintaining short-term memory; however, this cascade
unintelligible gibberish.
is essential for long-term memory. In addition, studies using
Damage to the superior temporal lobes in both
genetically modified mice have shown that alterations
hemispheres can produce word deafness, a profound inability
in specific genes for NMDA receptors or CREB can
to comprehend auditory speech on any level. Whereas
dramatically affect the capacity for LTP in particular brain
Wernicke’s aphasics can often comprehend bits and pieces of
areas. What’s more, the same studies have shown that these
a spoken utterance, as well as isolated words, patients with
molecules are critical to memory.
word deafness are functionally deaf for speech, lacking the
The many kinds of studies of human and animal
ability to comprehend even single words, despite being able
memory have led scientists to conclude that no single
to hear sound and even identify the e