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IN MY INMOST HEART I BELIEVED THAT I COULD SUCCEED WHERE OTHERS FAILED I REALLY WOULDN’T MISS YOUR CASE FOR THE WORLD WHAT ONE MAN CAN INVENT, ANOTHER CAN DISCOVER I CAN DISCOVER FACTS, WATSON, BUT I CANNOT CHANGE THEM MY NAME IS SHERLOCK HOLMES. IT IS MY BUSINESS TO KNOW WHAT OTHER PEOPLE DON’T KNOW I HAVE A TURN BOTH FOR OBSERVATION AND FOR DEDUCTION THE GAME IS BIG IDEAS SIMPLY Y EXPLAINED AFOOT ONE OF THE STRANGEST CASES WHICH EVER PERPLEXED A MAN’S BRAIN THE WHOLE INEXPLICABLE TANGLE SEEMED TO STRAIGHTEN OUT BEFORE ME THERE IS NOTHING MORE STIMULATING THAN A CASE WHERE EVERYTHING GOES AGAINST YOU I HAVE THE THREADS OF THIS AFFAIR ALL IN MY HAND THERE IS NOTHING LIKE FIRST-HAND EVIDENCE THE SHERLOCK HOLMES BOOK THE SHERLOCK HOLMES BOOK DK LONDON SENIOR ART EDITOR Helen Spencer PROJECT EDITOR Alexandra Beeden DESIGNERS Bobby Birchall, Vanessa Hamilton EDITORS Polly Boyd, Chauney Dunford, Jemima Dunne, Joanna Edwards, Sam Kennedy, Patrick Newman, Carey Scott, Debra Wolter US EDITORS Christine Heilman, Margaret Parrish DESIGN ASSISTANT Renata Latipova MANAGING ART EDITOR Lee Grifﬁths MANAGING EDITOR Gareth Jones ART DIRECTOR Karen Self ASSOCIATE PUBLISHING DIRECTOR Liz Wheeler PUBLISHING DIRECTOR Jonathan Metcalf JACKET DESIGNER Natalie Godwin JACKET EDITOR Claire Gell JACKET DESIGN DEVELOPMENT MANAGER Sophia MTT PRE-PRODUCTION PRODUCER Gillian Reid PRODUCER Mandy Inness PICTURE RESEARCH Roland Smithies, Sarah Smithies First American Edition, 2015 Published in the United States by DK Publishing, 345 Hudson Street New York, New York 10014 Copyright © 2015 Dorling Kindersley Limited A Penguin Random House Company 15 16 17 18 19 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 001—283947—Oct/2015 DK DELHI All rights reserved. Without limiting the rights under the copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the prior wri; tten permission of the copyright owner. JACKET DESIGNER Dhirendra Singh Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited. SENIOR DTP DESIGNER Harish Aggarwal A catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress. MANAGING JACKETS EDITOR Saloni Singh ISBN: 978-1-4654-3849-2 ILLUSTRATIONS James Graham, Vanessa Hamilton PICTURE RESEARCH Aditya Katyal original styling by STUDIO 8 DK books are available at special discounts when purchased in bulk for sales promotions, premiums, fund-raising, or educational use. For details, contact: DK Publishing Special Markets, 345 Hudson Street, New York, New York 10014 SpecialSales@dk.com Printed and bound in China A WORLD OF IDEAS: SEE ALL THERE IS TO KNOW www.dk.com CONTRIBUTORS DAVID STUART DAVIES, CONSULTANT EDITOR JOHN FARNDON David Stuart Davies is a crime writer, playwright, and editor. Regarded as an authority on Sherlock Holmes, he has written seven Holmes novels and several nonﬁction works, including Starring Sherlock Holmes (Titan), and edited numerous collections dealing with the Baker Street sleuth. His latest Holmes title is Sherlock Holmes & The Devil’s Promise (Titan). His own detectives are Johnny Hawke, a private detective operating in London during World War II; Luther Darke, a Victorian “puzzle solver”; and DI Paul Snow, a Yorkshire policeman in a series of novels set in the 1980s, the most recent being Innocent Blood (Mystery Press). His website is www.davidstuartdavies.com John Farndon is a Royal Literary Fellow at Anglia Ruskin University in Cambridge, UK, and an author, playwright, and composer. Among his many books are Do You Think You’re Clever? and Do Not Open. He is the creator of The Secret History of Objects tales, which premiered at the Moscow Polytech Festival in 2015. BARRY FORSHAW, CONSULTANT EDITOR Barry Forshaw is one of the UK’s leading experts on crime ﬁction and ﬁlm. His books include Nordic Noir, Sex and Film, and The Rough Guide to Crime Fiction. Other works include Death in a Cold Climate, British Gothic Cinema, Euro Noir, and the Keating Awardwinning British Crime Writing: An Encyclopedia, along with books on Italian cinema and Stieg Larsson. He writes for various national newspapers and edits Crime Time (www.crimetime.co.uk). ANDREW HERITAGE Andrew Heritage is a publishing consultant who specializes in cartography, current affairs, art, popular culture, and literary history. He has edited and contributed to over 100 titles including the DK Atlas of World History, The Book of Codes, The Book of Saints, The Rough Guide to Crime Fiction, and Great Movies. ALEX WHITTLETON Alex Whittleton is a freelance professional writer on a range of nonﬁction subjects, including literature, lifestyle, media, and food. She has had academic work published in the Thomas Hardy Yearbook and has a particular interest in Victorian literature and culture. DAVID ANDERSON LIZ WYSE David Anderson is a researcher based in the Department of English at University College London, where he specializes in the literature and ﬁlm of the city. He is a senior editor at Review 31, a staff writer at Connell Guides, and writer-in-residence at the Cob Gallery. Liz Wyse is an author and editor who has written on a wide range of historical subjects, and recently created a range of books on etiquette and modern manners for Debrett’s. She has edited a number of historical atlases, including The Times Atlas of World Archaeology and The Historical Atlas of New York City, and was Editor-in-Chief of The Guinness Book of World Records. JOLY BRAIME Joly Braime has been a magazine journalist, a guidebook and website editor, and a freelance writer who has worked on everything from ﬁnancial books to articles about Fifty Shades of Grey. He has been a Holmes obsessive since acquiring The Complete Sherlock Holmes at the age of 11. 6 CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 14 22 26 28 30 Steel true, blade straight Sir Arthur Conan Doyle My name is Sherlock Holmes. It is my business to know what other people don’t know Sherlock Holmes I really wouldn’t miss your case for the world The Red-Headed League 68 The little things are inﬁnitely the most important A Case of Identity 70 There is nothing more deceptive than an obvious fact The Boscombe Valley Mystery 74 I am the last court of appeal The Five Orange Pips 80 It is better to learn wisdom late than never to learn it at all The Man with the Twisted Lip I was a whetstone for his mind. I stimulated him Dr. John Watson He sits motionless, like a spider in the centre of its web Professor James Moriarty I am a practical man, Mr. Holmes, and when I have got my evidence I come to my conclusions Inspector G. Lestrade THE EARLY ADVENTURES 36 62 There’s the scarlet thread of murder running through the colourless skein of life A Study in Scarlet 46 I never make exceptions. An exception disproves the rule The Sign of Four 56 You see, but you do not observe A Scandal in Bohemia 82 84 In the larger and older jewels every facet may stand for a bloody deed The Adventure of the Blue Carbuncle Violence does, in truth, recoil upon the violent The Adventure of the Speckled Band 90 Each new discovery furnishes a step which leads on to the complete truth The Adventure of the Engineer’s Thumb 94 I had formed my conclusions as to the case before our client came into the room The Adventure of the Noble Bachelor 96 There are women in whom the love of a lover extinguishes all other loves The Adventure of the Beryl Coronet 98 Crime is common. Logic is rare The Adventure of the Copper Beeches THE GREAT DETECTIVE 106 The real murderer is standing immediately behind you Silver Blaze 110 There is no part of the body which varies so much as the human ear The Cardboard Box 112 Any truth is better than indeﬁnite doubt The Yellow Face 7 114 Human nature is a strange mixture, Watson The Stockbroker’s Clerk 116 And then in an instant the key of the riddle was in my hands The Gloria Scott 120 In my inmost heart I believed that I could succeed where others failed The Musgrave Ritual 126 The results show that the trap was skillfully baited The Reigate Squire 132 One of the strangest cases which ever perplexed a man’s brain The Crooked Man 134 I can read in a man’s eye when it is his own skin he is frightened for The Resident Patient 136 To the logician all things should be seen exactly as they are The Greek Interpreter 138 The most difﬁcult crime to track is the one which is purposeless The Naval Treaty 142 Danger is part of my trade The Final Problem A LEGEND RETURNS 152 There is nothing more stimulating than a case where everything goes against you The Hound of the Baskervilles 162 This empty house is my tree, and you are my tiger The Adventure of the Empty House 192 Surely my deductions are simplicity itself The Adventure of the Golden Pince-Nez 168 All my instincts are one way, and all the facts are the other The Adventure of the Norwood Builder 196 When a man is lost it is my duty to ascertain his fate The Adventure of the Missing Three-Quarter 170 I have the threads of this affair all in my hand The Adventure of the Dancing Men 176 She thinks she does not know the man; I am convinced she does The Adventure of the Solitary Cyclist 178 A criminal who was capable of such a thought is a man whom I should be proud to do business with The Adventure of the Priory School 184 One should always look for a possible alternative, and provide against it The Adventure of Black Peter 186 By jove, Watson; I’ve got it! The Adventure of Charles Augustus Milverton 188 There is a certain method in the gentleman’s eccentric proceedings The Adventure of the Six Napoleons 190 Let us hear the suspicions. I will look after the proofs The Adventure of the Three Students 198 The game is afoot The Adventure of the Abbey Grange 202 It is a capital mistake to theorize in advance of the facts The Adventure of the Second Stain HOLMES TAKES A BOW 212 A great brain and a huge organization have been turned to the extinction of one man The Valley of Fear 222 The whole inexplicable tangle seemed to straighten out before me The Adventure of Wisteria Lodge 226 Different threads, but leading to the same tangle The Adventure of the Red Circle 230 The London criminal is certainly a dull fellow The Adventure of the Bruce-Partington Plans 234 Well, Watson, we seem to have fallen upon evil days The Adventure of the Dying Detective 8 236 We simply can’t afford to wait for the police or to keep within the four corners of the law The Disappearance of Lady Frances Carfax 240 I have seldom known a case which at ﬁrst sight presented a more singular problem The Adventure of the Devil’s Foot 246 There’s an east wind coming, Watson His Last Bow THE FINAL DEDUCTIONS 252 This man has come for his own purpose, but he may stay for mine The Adventure of the Mazarin Stone 254 I can discover facts, Watson, but I cannot change them The Problem of Thor Bridge 258 When one tries to rise above nature one is liable to fall below it The Adventure of the Creeping Man 260 The world is big enough for us. No ghosts need apply The Adventure of the Sussex Vampire 262 There is some guilty secret in the room The Adventure of the Three Garridebs 266 Some people’s affability is more deadly than the violence of coarser souls The Adventure of the Illustrious Client 272 I am not the law, but I represent justice so far as my feeble powers go The Adventure of the Three Gables 274 I see no more than you, but I have trained myself to notice what I see The Adventure of the Blanched Soldier 278 I am an omnivorous reader with a strangely retentive memory for triﬂes The Adventure of the Lion’s Mane 284 We reach. We grasp. And what is left in our hands at the end? A shadow The Adventure of the Retired Colourman 286 Patient suffering is in itself the most precious of all lessons The Adventure of the Veiled Lodger 288 It is only the colourless, uneventful case which is hopeless The Adventure of Shoscombe Old Place THE WORLD OF SHERLOCK HOLMES 296 What do you say to a ramble through London? The Victorian World 300 There is nothing so unnatural as the commonplace Sherlock and Society 306 I have a turn both for observation and for deduction The Art of Deduction 310 There is nothing like ﬁrst-hand evidence Criminology and Forensic Science 316 You know my methods. Apply them Crime Writing and Detective Fiction 324 What one man can invent, another can discover The Fans of Sherlock Holmes 328 The best way of successfully acting a part is to be it Sherlock on Stage and Screen 336 The many faces of Holmes 340 Holmes by other hands 344 Conan Doyle’s other works 346 INDEX 352 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 9 FOREWORD I n 1946, almost 70 years ago, Edgar W. Smith pondered in an editorial in the Baker Street Journal, “What is it that we love in Sherlock Holmes?” Nearly 130 years after Holmes ﬁrst appeared, subsequently embedded in the hearts of millions, it is appropriate to reconsider this question. First, Smith wrote, “we love the time in which he lived.” When Smith wrote these words, that golden era, when it was “always 1895,” was only a half-century earlier, and well within the living memory of Smith (who was born in 1894) and his contemporary readers. Now it is an alien country, as mythical and foreign as the era of the Roman empire, the battleﬁelds of Napoleon, or the court of Elizabeth I. While it may be true that we do love the Victorian era, we love it as we love the Old West or the countryside of Arthur’s Camelot, only as it exists in our imaginations, not in our memories. Even Smith knew that the late nineteenth century was no paradise but instead a time of great changes, for people of color, for women, and for the middle class. In the world of 1946, just righting itself from the cataclysms of war and the horrors of the Holocaust, how could Smith justify a love for a character as out-of-date as Sherlock Holmes? Smith’s answer was emblematic of 1946, when the world could still believe in heroes: “[Holmes] stands before us as a symbol,” he wrote, “a symbol...of all that we are not but ever would be... We see him as the ﬁne expression of our urge to trample evil and to set aright the wrongs with which the world is plagued.... [He] is the personiﬁcation of something in us that we have lost or never had… And the time and place and all the great events are near and dear to us not because our memories call them forth in pure nostalgia, but because they are a part of us today. That is the Sherlock Holmes we love—the Holmes implicit and eternal in ourselves.” Those were stirring words for a world on the brink of peace and prosperity. The Allies had fought a terrible war, the last “good” war, and the madmen were defeated, by common men and women— heroes—from many lands. But if Holmes was only a hero, as Smith implied, he failed us, for he did not slay the dragon, at the Reichenbach Falls or later. Seventy years later, we can see that the spirit of Moriarty did not die in a bunker in Berlin or in a palace in Tokyo. His hand is clear after 1946, in the wars in which so many died, in Korea, the Balkans, Afghanistan, and Iraq. Even today, his minions continue to foment crime, corruption, hunger, and poverty, in a world with factions no longer easily divided into good or evil. And yet we return to Holmes. Smith was right in saying that Holmes appeals to us for “all that we are not but ever would be.” But it is not Holmes’s heroism that calls to us, for he was not a hero (or perhaps not just a hero). Rather, he was an individual, in an age when individuality seemed lost in the teeming masses of the Empire. Heroic or not, Holmes always did the right thing. Some have pointed out that he was arrogant, cold, high-handed, misogynistic, unfeeling, manipulative—and these are difﬁcult charges to deny. Yet those are all merely facets of his single-minded character, unswerving in his pursuit of justice, without regard for the conventions of law or society. Holmes is what we dream of and yet hesitate to be: a man apart from the crowd. While he had only a single friend, Dr. John H. Watson, Holmes was very much a part of his world, as comfortable with the grooms and street urchins as with the bankers and nobility. In an age bound by rules and rituals for social circumstances of every sort, even death, Sherlock Holmes followed only his own rules. The mystery writer Raymond Chandler, writing many years after the death of Conan Doyle, had little liking for the Holmes stories. His ideal detective, he said, lived up to a simple credo: “[D]own these mean streets a man must go who is not himself mean, who is neither tarnished nor afraid.” Yet these words could not more accurately describe Holmes. Unafraid, untarnished, focused on his ﬁxed goal, Holmes inspires all of us to believe that we need not be heroes; rather, we can make the world a better place by doing the right thing. Leslie S. Klinger INTRODU CTION 12 INTRODUCTION T hink of the silhouette: the deerstalker, the Roman nose, the pipe. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s Sherlock Holmes is, quite simply, the most famous ﬁgure in all of crime ﬁction. What’s more, he is one of the most recognizable ﬁctional characters in the Western world—and beyond. And although he owes something to his literary predecessors in the detective ﬁction genre, Sherlock Holmes is the template for virtually every ﬁctional detective that has followed him. Even those who did not emulate him were obliged to do something markedly different, so seismic was his impact. The brilliant, impatient master of deductive reasoning who shared rooms at 221B Baker Street with his faithful chronicler, Dr. John H. Watson, is as popular today as when the young and ambitious author Conan Doyle created him. Without doubt, Sherlock Holmes is a ﬁgure for the ages, and this book is a celebration of the detective in all his myriad facets. Early inspirations When the American writer Edgar Allan Poe wrote about a protoHolmes protagonist, C. Auguste Dupin, in a series of stories that virtually forged the detective ﬁction format, he had his rather remote sleuth utilizing observation, logic, and lateral thinking—all while demonstrating his skill to an awestruck unnamed narrator; the Holmes formula, in fact, in embryo. Conan Doyle was a close reader of such Poe stories as “The Murders in the Rue Morgue” (1841), and he borrowed a variety of notions from Dupin and developed them far beyond anything Poe had ever dreamed of. Inﬂuenced also by his charismatic professor at Edinburgh University, Dr. Joseph Bell, Conan Doyle forged an imperishable canon of work over some 40 years with his stories and novels about the Great Detective, each brimming with atmosphere and invention. No man... has brought the same amount of study and of natural talent to the detection of crime which I have done. Sherlock Holmes A Study in Scarlet (1887) Conan Doyle inspired a reading public so obsessed with Holmes that the writer’s attempt to kill off the character he had grown tired of (in the short story “The Final Problem,” pp.142–47) was met with national outrage. Writer at work Conan Doyle’s own life was often as remarkable as anything to be found in his more bizarre ﬁction, particularly in his later years, when his interest in spiritualism increasingly came to the fore. His feelings toward the character he had created in Sherlock Holmes were famously mixed. A wellknown Punch cartoon of the day showed the author chained to the great detective, and Conan Doyle often expressed his frustrated wish to be remembered for something other than his famous protagonist. But it was Sherlock Holmes rather than the author’s own preferred historical ﬁction that made Conan Doyle one of the most celebrated popular writers of his age. The famous duo Apart from the mesmerising genius of his detective, Conan Doyle’s most durable achievement within the Sherlock Holmes stories and novels was the relationship he established INTRODUCTION 13 between the logical sleuth and his colleague Watson (the latter a surrogate for the reader), which the writer ﬁnessed into something immensely satisfying. Much of the pleasure of the stories and novels may be found in the interaction between Holmes and Watson as much as from the jaw-dropping revelations of the plots. Holmes on the page The Sherlock Holmes Book not only examines the complete canonical collection of 56 short stories and the four memorable novels (the most famous of which, of course, is The Hound of the Baskervilles, pp.152–61) but also applies the kind of forensic attention to all things Holmesian that the sleuth himself utilized in his cases— including the life and character of his creator, along with Conan Doyle’s non-Holmes work. Beyond the canon While the original canon of Holmes stories and novels remains the key element in the detective’s popularity, it is the inﬁnite—and continuing—ﬂexibility of Holmes and Watson as characters that has rendered them relevant and ripe for multiple reinterpretations even today, in a manner that such Holmes imitators as Agatha Christie’s Hercule Poirot could not begin to rival. One reason for the longevity of the character is his immensely ﬂexible appeal when adapted for drama—on stage, ﬁlm, and television. Actors love to take up the magnifying glass, pipe, and violin, and surround themselves with the cozy clutter of 221B Baker Street. All the key actors who have taken on the mantle of Holmes are celebrated here, from the earliest portrayals to the most recent: Benedict Cumberbatch starring in a massively successful modernday reimagining of Sherlock Holmes in the 21st century. In these pages, you will also ﬁnd the literary offshoots—the creation of adventures for the great detective by writers other than Conan Doyle, which began even when the author was still alive, and included such practitioners as his son, Adrian Conan Doyle. Over the years, there have been many Holmes pastiches, from retellings of canonical works to complete reinventions of the detective’s cases. Other areas for examination are the inﬂuence of Conan Doyle’s writing on the crime ﬁction genre, along with the ways in which the Holmes stories provide insight into historical and social aspects of Victorian England, 19th-century criminology and forensics, and the science and methods of logical thought and deduction. The Great Detective In short, The Sherlock Holmes Book provides a complete guide to all aspects of Holmesiana. It is a celebration of Conan Doyle’s most fascinating creation, the Great Detective Sherlock Holmes. ■ Barry Forshaw and David Stuart Davies Consultant editors When you have eliminated the impossible whatever remains, however improbable, must be the truth. Sherlock Holmes The Sign of Four (1890) 14 STEEL TRUE BLADE STRAIGHT SIR ARTHUR CONAN DOYLE A rthur Ignatius Conan Doyle was born in Edinburgh on May 22, 1859. His mother, Mary Foley, was of Irish extraction; she could trace her ancestry back to the inﬂuential Percy family of Northumberland, and from there to the Plantagenet line. Mary recounted tales of history, high adventure, and heroic deeds to the young Arthur, which were to be the seeds of inspiration in his later writing career. The family was large—Arthur was the eldest of 10 children—and life was difﬁcult for his mother, who struggled to bring up the family on the meager income provided by her unambitious husband Charles Altamont Doyle—a civil servant and occasional artist. Charles was prone to bouts of epilepsy as well as depression and alcoholism, which eventually led to his being institutionalized in 1893. Education and inﬂuences In order to help Arthur escape his depressing home background, Mrs. Doyle scraped enough money together to send him to Stonyhurst College, a strict Jesuit boarding school situated in an isolated part of Lancashire. It was at this That love of books… is among the choicest gifts of the gods. Arthur Conan Doyle Through the Magic Door (1907) SIR ARTHUR CONAN DOYLE 15 Conan Doyle is pictured here at work in the garden of Bignell Wood—the family’s rural retreat in the New Forest, Hampshire— during the late 1920s. establishment that he began to question his religious beliefs, and by the time he left the school in 1875 he had ﬁrmly rejected Christianity. Instead he began a lifelong search for some other belief to embrace— a search that eventually led him to spiritualism. It was also at Stonyhurst that he encountered a fellow pupil named Moriarty—a name that he would use to great effect later, in his writings. Conan Doyle was always picking up triﬂes and tidbits of information, ideas, and concepts that he encountered and stored away with the idea of possibly using them in the future. After studying for a further year with the Jesuits in Feldkirch in Austria, Conan Doyle surprised his artistic family by choosing to study medicine at Edinburgh University. During his time at the university— 1876 to 1881—he encountered two professors who would later serve as models for his characters. In his autobiography, Memories and Adventures (1924), he describes Professor Rutherford with his “Assyrian beard, his prodigious voice, his enormous chest and his singular manner”—characteristics that Conan Doyle would later assign to the colorful Professor George Edward Challenger, the central character in his famous scienceﬁction novel The Lost World (1912). Even more signiﬁcant was his association with Dr. Joseph Bell, whose method of deducing the history and circumstances of his patients appeared little short of magical. Here was the model and inspiration for Sherlock Holmes, and it is interesting to note that the ﬁrst collection of Holmes short stories, The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes (1892), is dedicated “To My Old Teacher Joseph Bell.” It has been said that Conan Doyle looked upon Bell as a father ﬁgure because he lacked one at home. To help to pay his university tuition and assist his mother with the upkeep of the family, Conan Doyle undertook many part-time jobs, including that of medical assistant in Birmingham, Shefﬁeld, and Shropshire. He even served as a ship’s doctor on an Arctic whaler, another experience that provided material for his writing—particularly the ghost story “The Captain of the Polestar” (1890), and “The Adventure of Black Peter” (pp.184–85). From doctor to writer Founded in 1891, The Strand Magazine was an illustrated monthly featuring short stories, including the highly popular Sherlock Holmes tales, which appeared in complete form. After graduating in 1882, Conan Doyle became a partner in a medical practice in Plymouth, Devon, with Dr. George Turnaville Budd, who had been a fellow ❯❯ 16 INTRODUCTION Born May 22 in Edinburgh, to Charles Altamont Doyle and Mary Foley. 1859 Sets up his own medical practice in Southsea. A Study in Scarlet, the ﬁrst Sherlock Holmes novel, is published. Meets and falls in love with Jean Leckie. 1883 1887 1897 1876 1885 1891 Enrolls at Edinburgh University to study medicine and meets Dr. Joseph Bell—the main inspiration for Holmes. Marries Louise Hawkins (“Touie”), sister of a patient. “A Scandal in Bohemia,” the ﬁrst Holmes short story, appears in The Strand Magazine. student at Edinburgh University. Budd was an eccentric and volatile man and the partnership soon disintegrated, leaving Conan Doyle to pack his bags and set up a practice on his own in Southsea, Hampshire. By this time he had already tried his hand at writing ﬁction and had several short stories published, but it was while in Southsea that he made a more determined effort to achieve success as an author. As he slowly built up his medical practice, Conan Doyle toyed with the idea of creating a detective story in which the protagonist—a character called Sherrinford Holmes—solved a crime by deductive reasoning in the manner of Joseph Bell. In Memories and Adventures he observed: “Reading some detective stories, I was struck by the fact that their results were obtained in nearly every case by chance. I thought I would try my hand at writing a story in which the hero would treat crime as Dr. Bell treated disease and where science would take the place of romance.” This idea materialized in the form of the novel A Study in Scarlet (pp.36–45), with Sherrinford becoming Sherlock—and a legend was born. It was published in Beeton’s Christmas Annual in 1887; Conan Doyle accepted the meager fee of £25, and in so doing relinquished all claims to the copyright. Following the publication of A Study in Scarlet, Conan Doyle turned his attention to historical ﬁction—his ﬁrst love, inspired by his mother’s stories and his 1900 Went to South Africa to serve as a medic for British troops in the Second Boer War (1899–1902). admiration for the works of Sir Walter Scott. The result was Micah Clarke (1889), a tale based on the Monmouth Rebellion. It was a great critical and ﬁnancial success, and it was this that convinced Conan Doyle that his future lay in writing. The US-based Lippincott’s Magazine commissioned a second Sherlock Holmes novel in 1890, and he produced The Sign of Four (pp.46–55) in less than a month. However, it wasn’t until 1891, when The Strand Magazine began the series of 12 short stories (later known as The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes) that the character of Holmes really struck a chord with the public. It was Conan Doyle who had approached the Strand in the ﬁrst instance: “It had struck me that a single character running through SIR ARTHUR CONAN DOYLE 17 Knighted for a pamphlet justifying the Boer War, and for service in the conﬂict. Marries his “dear friend” Jean Leckie on September 18. The collection His Last Bow is published in book form. “The Coming of the Fairies” is published, at the height of his spiritualism. Dies July 7 at home in Windlesham, Surrey. 1902 1907 1917 1922 1930 1906 1912 1918 1924 Louise dies of tuberculosis on July 4. The Lost World is published— the ﬁrst Professor Challenger story. Death of eldest son Kingsley on October 18. Publishes his autobiography Memories and Adventures. a series, if it only engaged the reader, would bind the reader to that magazine.” And that is exactly what happened. Within six months of the Baker Street detective’s ﬁrst appearance in the Strand, in “A Scandal in Bohemia” (pp.56–61), the main selling point of the magazine was each new Holmes adventure. Marriage and a break Meanwhile, in 1885, Conan Doyle had married Louise (“Touie”) Hawkins, the sister of one of his patients. It was a union that was dogged by Louise’s constant ill health. In 1891, the couple moved from Southsea to Tennison Road in South Norwood, southeast London, so Conan Doyle could be closer to the literary world. However, after giving birth to two children, Mary (1889) and Kingsley (1892), Louise was diagnosed with tuberculosis; her condition declined rapidly, and she remained an invalid for the rest of her life. In 1894, they left London and moved into a new house— Undershaw, in Hindhead, Surrey— since Conan Doyle believed the air would be better for Louise’s health. Despite the success of the ﬁrst series of Holmes tales, Conan Doyle quickly became bored with his creation, and although he succumbed to the offer of an increased fee for a second series, he was determined that this should be the last. He wanted to spend more time writing historical ﬁction, which he saw as a more worthy pursuit, and one that would gain him greater recognition as a serious author. In 1893, he visited Switzerland with Louise. It was while he was there that he visited the Reichenbach Falls and decided that this was a place that would “make a worthy tomb for poor Sherlock, even if I buried my banking account along with him.” So in the last story of the second collection, The Memoirs of Sherlock Holmes (1893), he consigned his hero to the watery depths of the Reichenbach Falls, locked in the arms of the criminal mastermind Professor Moriarty. Ignoring the public howls of complaint about his murder of Holmes, he concentrated on a wide range of other writing projects, including a tale of Regency life (Rodney Stone, 1896), a novel about the Napoleonic wars (Uncle Bernac, 1897), and many short stories. ❯❯ 18 INTRODUCTION Conan Doyle’s favorite stories In 1927, The Strand Magazine ran a competition asking its readers to guess which of the Sherlock Holmes stories were Conan Doyle’s favorites. Conan Doyle announced his choices in a Strand article titled “How I Made My List.” None of the stories from The Case Book of Sherlock Holmes were eligible, since it had not yet been published as a book. However, he began by listing “The Lion’s Mane” and “The Illustrious Client” as his favorites from that collection. The conclusive list of his favorites was as follows: ﬁrst “The Speckled Band,” “The Red-Headed League,” and “The Dancing Men” for their original plots, followed by “The Final Problem,” “A Scandal in Bohemia,” and “The Empty House”—which respectively feature “the only foe who ever really extended Holmes,” “more female interest than is usual,” and “the difﬁcult task of explaining away the alleged death of Holmes.” He then selected “The Five Orange Pips” and “The Priory School” for their dramatic moments, “The Second Stain” for its “high diplomacy and intrigue,” and “The Devil’s Foot,” for being “grim and new.” With its description of Holmes’s early life, and “a historical touch which gives it a little added distinction,” “The Musgrave Ritual” was also given a place on his favorites list. And ﬁnally, he added “The Reigate Squire,” in which Holmes “shows perhaps the most ingenuity.” As Conan Doyle’s stature as a writer and his wealth both grew, he became increasingly involved in public life and the literary scene. Among his distinguished friends and acquaintances was a set of authors who, like Conan Doyle, had created remarkable characters who would resonate with the public long after their deaths: Bram Stoker (Dracula); J. M. Barrie (Peter Pan); Robert Louis Stevenson (Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde); and Oscar Wilde (Dorian Gray). War and a resurrection Conan Doyle was actively engaged in the Boer War (1899–1902), offering medical assistance at the Langman Field Hospital in Bloemfontein in South Africa Conan Doyle on the way to the US in the 1920s with his second wife Jean and their children (from left): Lena Jean, Denis, and Adrian. in appalling conditions and visiting the front; he later wrote up the history of the war and a pamphlet vindicating the actions of the British Army. It was at the turn of the century that Conan Doyle hit upon a plot for a new mystery story—The Hound of the Baskervilles (pp.152–61). Constructing the framework of the story with the aid of his friend, journalist Fletcher Robinson, the author realized that he needed a central character to play detective, and so he resurrected Sherlock Holmes. The novel was set in 1889, two years before Holmes supposedly fell to his death at the Reichenbach Falls. It was ﬁrst serialized in the Strand in 1901 and published in book form in 1902. In the same year, Conan Doyle was given a knighthood in recognition of his pamphlet on the Boer War and service at the front—although many felt that the honor was more SIR ARTHUR CONAN DOYLE 19 In the 1920s, magician and escape artist Houdini put on shows to expose false psychics and mediums. He had been friendly with Conan Doyle, but the two men fell out over a séance. of a thank-you for bringing about the return of Sherlock Holmes. By 1904, the author succumbed to the offers of large fees and began writing more Holmes short stories. A second marriage Conan Doyle’s relationship with his wife Louise was a strong friendship rather than a passionate romance, and it wasn’t until he met Jean Leckie that he experienced the full emotional force of romantic love. He ﬁrst encountered this attractive Scottish woman—14 years his junior—in 1897, and fell head over heels in love with her. He confessed to his mother how he felt about Jean and told close friends, too, who were divided on the subject; Conan Doyle’s brother-in-law, E. W. Hornung (the writer of the Rafﬂes detective stories), was furious at what he considered to be inﬁdelity. However, Conan Doyle was not physically unfaithful to Louise. His strong personal code of chivalry forbade him to take his affair with Jean into the realms of sexual congress. Nevertheless, the strain must have placed Conan Doyle upon the psychological rack. His fondness and sense of duty to his invalid wife kept him by her side, while at the same time his passion for Jean tormented both his heart and mind. Louise died in 1906, and Conan Doyle married Jean a year later. Shortly after the wedding, they moved to a new house—Little Windlesham, in Crowborough, Sussex. It was a happy marriage, and Jean bore Conan Doyle three more children: Denis (1909), Adrian (1910), and Lena Jean (1912). On the side of justice It was during this period that Conan Doyle became involved in a personal ﬁght to establish the innocence of a Parsee, George Edalji, convicted of horse and cattle maiming in Warwickshire. Using the methods of his detective hero, Conan Doyle was able to establish that Edalji could not have performed the savage attacks on the animals because of his very poor eyesight. (The writer Julian Barnes, fascinated by the case, recounted the story in his 2005 historical novel Arthur & George, which was later dramatized and broadcast on television in 2015). ❯❯ 20 INTRODUCTION In addition, there were other causes that Conan Doyle took up where he felt that injustice had been wrought. His moral standards prompted him to investigate matters where he believed that misjudgments had been made. Notably, he campaigned to have the death penalty lifted from Roger Casement, a traitor during World War I, but he was not successful. Similarly, he protested the innocence of Oscar Slater, a German Jew accused of murder: thanks to Conan Doyle’s efforts, Slater was ﬁnally released in 1927 after serving 18 years of a life sentence. Spiritualism With the outbreak of World War I in 1914, Conan Doyle became instrumental in forming the local volunteer force—a forerunner of the Home Guard—and acted as a war correspondent, visiting the battlefronts. Perhaps it was the senseless slaughter of so many young lives that revitalized his A man’s soul and reason are his own and he must go whither they beckon. Arthur Conan Doyle Letter to The Scotsman (October 1900) interest in spiritualism, for in 1916 he became convinced that he should devote his ﬁnal years to the advancement of this belief. It was a decision that was further strengthened by the tragic death of his son, Kingsley, who passed away at the age of 26 after succumbing to pneumonia following his wounding on the Somme in 1918. In the last decade of his life, Conan Doyle gave most of his time and energy to lecturing on spiritualism in Australia, the US, Canada, and South Africa. He was careful and thorough in testing mediums, but there were occasions on which he was deceived, and his critics seized upon these to illustrate what they regarded as his credulity. Certainly, when two young girls claimed to have seen and photographed fairies in a watery dell near their home in Cottingley, Yorkshire, and Conan Doyle (together with Edward Gardner, a leading Theosophist) declared them to be genuine, he appeared very gullible. It was Conan Doyle’s obsession with spiritualism and his search for proof of a life beyond death that led him into a brief friendship with the magician Harry Houdini, who was also a spiritualist. The two men eventually fell out after a séance in which Lady Jean Conan Doyle (Arthur’s wife), acting as a medium, apparently received a written message from Houdini’s dead mother. As the magician’s mother was a Hungarian Jew and couldn’t speak or write a word of English, Houdini denounced the séance as being false. The magician also later wrote a mocking article about the incident, sealing the rift between the two men. A ﬁtting end The spiritualist tours were arduous and physically draining, and Conan Doyle’s health suffered as a result. He was now in his late sixties, but it appeared that he was making no allowances for his advancing age. In 1929, he suffered severe pains in The “Cottingley Fairies” photos, faked by two young girls in 1917, fooled many people—including Conan Doyle— into believing fairies existed. The girls cut out illustrations from magazines, securing them in place with hat pins. SIR ARTHUR CONAN DOYLE 21 A new Holmes tale? In 2015 a new Sherlock Holmes story was discovered in an attic in Selkirk, Scotland. “Sherlock Homes: Discovering the Border Burghs and, by deduction, the Brig Bazaar” may have been written by Conan Doyle in 1904 (though this has not yet been conﬁrmed), as part of a booklet of short stories titled Book o’ the Brig. The booklet was printed to raise money to replace a local bridge that had been destroyed by ﬂooding in 1902. Conan Doyle regularly visited Selkirk, his chest and was diagnosed with angina. The doctors advised that he cancel all his spiritualist lectures, but the author was adamant that he would not let the public down by failing to honor his engagements. On his way to the Albert Hall, he suffered a violent attack, and from then on all physical exertion was forbidden. Some little time later he was discovered lying in the hallway of his home, clutching a single white snowdrop in his hand. He had seen the ﬂowers through the window and had struggled from his sickbed to take one of the blooms. My mother’s and father’s devotion to each other at all times was one of the most wonderful things I have ever known. Adrian Conan Doyle The New York Times (July 8, 1930) and may have contributed the story to assist locals in their fundraising efforts. He was involved in politics at this time, and seeking election as a Liberal Unionist. In the story, Holmes uses his powers of observation and deduction to predict that Watson is about to travel to Selkirk to open a bazaar to raise money for a bridge. In typical Holmesian style, the detective announces that although Watson has not told him of his plans, his actions “have revealed the bent of your mind.” By now, Conan Doyle knew he was dying. A few days before his death he wrote: “The reader will judge that I have had many adventures. The greatest and most glorious awaits me now.” He informed his family that he did not wish to pass away in bed, so they helped him to a chair where he could look through the window at the Sussex countryside beyond, and he died there surrounded by his family on the morning of July 7, 1930. His last words were to his beloved Jean: “You are wonderful.” He was buried in the garden of his home at Windlesham, but his remains were later moved to the nearby churchyard at Minstead. The inscription on his gravestone is “Steel True, Blade Straight.” A man of many parts Sir Arthur Conan Doyle was a remarkable man in all areas of his life. His literary output covers perhaps a wider range than any other writer of the 19th and early Conan Doyle’s ﬁnal resting place is with his second wife Jean in the graveyard at the Church of All Saints in Minstead, Hampshire. 20th centuries: as well as detective stories, he wrote poetry, plays, domestic dramas, sea stories, historical romances, supernatural chillers, medical tales, and various spiritualist tracts. However, as well as being a remarkable author, he was also a brilliant, energetic, innovative man with strong personal visions, attitudes, and ideas—a Victorian with a 20th-century outlook. His passion drove him to pursue a wide range of activities: he ran for parliament (unsuccessfully); he played cricket for the MCC, once capturing the wicket of the great W. G. Grace; he promoted crosscountry skiing in Switzerland; he was one of the ﬁrst car owners; he had a keen interest in photography and contributed articles on the subject to The British Journal of Photography; and, of course, he was also a doctor—a title that he prized above all others. With so many outstanding and fascinating qualities, it is not surprising that his most famous literary creation— Sherlock Holmes—was imbued with a similar kind of brilliance. ■ 22 MY NAME IS SHERLOCK HOLMES. IT IS MY BUSINESS TO KNOW WHAT OTHER PEOPLE DON’T KNOW SHERLOCK HOLMES S herlock Holmes is the greatest ﬁctional detective of all time; he is a man with exceptional powers of observation and reasoning, a master of disguise who is possessed of an uncanny ability to establish the truth. He is also an enigma. The “emotional robot” Initially, Holmes appears to be almost two-dimensional—a brilliant brain and human calculating machine with no personality or emotions. Even Conan Doyle said of him in an interview with The Bookman in 1892 that “Sherlock is utterly inhuman, no heart, but with a beautifully logical intellect.” And in “The Adventure of the Mazarin Stone” (pp.252–53) Holmes himself declares, “I am brain, Watson. The rest of me is a mere appendix.” It may possibly have been Conan Doyle’s intention to create a cold, robotic character with no human feelings and the mind of a computer. If so, he did not succeed—and thank goodness, since such a character would not have been very interesting, let alone inspire the affection, and often adoration, that Holmes does. This public fondness is, to some Such is Holmes’s popularity that a blue plaque has been erected at 221B Baker Street. In Conan Doyle’s day, although Baker Street existed in real life, the house number 221 did not. SHERLOCK HOLMES 23 With his tall, gaunt frame, deepset eyes, and aquiline nose, Sherlock Holmes is an instantly recognizable ﬁgure. Here, he features on a collectible cigarette card of the 1920s. extent, due to a natural inclination to ﬁll in the blanks about him in one’s imagination—an innate tendency to believe that someone denying they have any feelings must be hiding a deep well of emotion. But it is also because of the undeniably deep affection Holmes inspires in others in the stories—Mrs. Hudson, Inspector Lestrade (eventually), and particularly Dr. John Watson. Watson may ﬁnd Holmes’s vanity occasionally irritating, but his unstinting loyalty and indisputable fondness—so unmistakable that some commentators have, with no real evidence, suggested that he and Holmes are even lovers— reinforce the sense that Holmes is so much more than a brilliant robot. And every now and then, Holmes gives ﬂeeting hints that the loyalty and fondness are returned. A complex interior Conan Doyle also hints that there is a complex and deeply feeling character beneath the cool exterior. There is the drug use, which is an escape from boredom. There is the violin playing—so brilliant and yet so strange, which seems an outlet for emotions that cannot be expressed otherwise. And then there is the extraordinary river of compassion that runs through Holmes’s dealings with the many people, including villains, in his cases. On several occasions, Holmes lets a culprit go free once he feels that natural justice has been served, rather than subjecting them to the full letter of the “ofﬁcial” law. The picture Conan Doyle creates, and the one that makes Holmes so endlessly compelling, is the suggestion of hidden depths. He may be a person of extraordinary nobility who sacriﬁces his own feelings in order to serve the greater good by using his skills in detection. Or perhaps he is a man whose sense of inadequacy and interior pain lead him to bury his feelings and throw himself into his work. It is possible that both are true. In the BBC’s recent television series Sherlock, the detective’s difﬁculty with emotions is portrayed (by Benedict Cumberbatch) as a sign of mild autism. Physical appearance The one unambiguous thing about Holmes is his physical appearance, which was ﬁrst brought to life by the Sidney Paget drawings in The Strand Magazine, which presumably Conan Doyle approved. In these, Holmes has sharp, angular features and is tall and thin, yet wiry and athletic, with reserves of strength ❯❯ 24 INTRODUCTION Sidney Paget, the ﬁrst illustrator of the Holmes stories in The Strand Magazine (some of which are shown here), was largely responsible for creating the popular image of Holmes. that enable him to cope remarkably well in any physical tussle (aided by his knowledge of the martial art baritsu, p.165). Holmes’s tweedy attire, cape, and his now famous deerstalker hat—created by Paget in the drawings rather than by Conan Doyle—are as iconic as his trademark cane and pipe. Holmes’s background Conan Doyle gives away few details of Holmes’s life, adding to the enigma. “His Last Bow” (pp.246–47), set in 1914, implies that Holmes is 60, meaning he was born in about 1854. His ancestors are “country squires”, and his grandmother the sister of the French artist Vernet—probably Charles Horace Vernet (1758–1836) as opposed to his father Claude Joseph (1714–1789). The only family member that the reader knows anything about is Holmes’s elder brother Mycroft. Holmes claims that he developed his skills in deduction as an undergraduate. Commentators have, therefore, speculated where he went to university, the writer Dorothy L. Sayers theorizing that it was Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, while some scholars favour Oxford. There he had one true friend, Victor Trevor, who precipitated his involvement in “The Gloria Scott” case (pp.116–19). He does not seem to have made any other friends since, except Watson. In “The Five Orange Pips” (pp.74–9) Watson suggests, “Some friend of yours, perhaps?” and Holmes replies, “Except yourself I have none.” His solitariness is lifelong. In the 1870s, after university, Holmes moved to London and took up residence in Montague Street, near the British Museum. He had connections at St. Bartholomew’s Hospital, which allowed him to conduct his experiments in the labs there, even though he was neither student nor staff. He was already developing his sideline as a consulting detective, but it was only after he met Watson in 1881 and moved into 221B with him as his co-lodger that the business became all-consuming. Life with Watson For eight years, Holmes and Watson were inseparable, and Watson was the witness and recorder of most of SHERLOCK HOLMES 25 I have chosen my own particular profession… I am the only one in the world. Sherlock Holmes Holmes’s brilliant exploits as a detective—although some were kept from Watson. Then, in about 1889, Watson fell in love with Mary Morstan and moved away from 221B Baker Street to set up his own medical practice in west London. The relationship between Watson and Holmes became more distant after Watson’s marriage, and we hear less of his cases—until the fateful one in “The Final Problem” (pp.142–47), in which Holmes appeared to meet his death at Reichenbach Falls on May 4, 1891 in a struggle with the archvillain Moriarty. Years later, to the total amazement of Watson (and the Mycroft Holmes reading public), he reappeared in London in “The Adventure of the Empty House” (pp.162–67). His account of his missing three years, called the “Great Hiatus” by Holmes enthusiasts, was scant and involved hints of gripping adventures in Tibet, Persia, and Khartoum before he settled in Montpellier in southern France, where he conducted scientiﬁc experiments. The lack of information has led Holmes enthusiasts to speculate that he spent at least some of that time doing undercover work for the British government, via Mycroft. By the time Holmes returned, Watson had been widowed, and they resumed their relationship, until Watson again moved out of 221B and Holmes retired to a cottage on the south coast near Eastbourne to indulge in the joys of the quiet life and his passion for beekeeping. But he could not entirely resist the urge to do a little detective work on his new home territory, as depicted in “The Adventure of the Lion’s Mane” (pp.278–83), set in 1907, and later carried out vital work for the Foreign Ofﬁce in the build-up to World War I in “His Last Bow.” After that, at age 60, Holmes ﬁnally vanished. Inspiration for Holmes Holmes’s elder brother Mycroft is a vibrant element in the Holmes canon—although, like Moriarty, he only appears directly in two stories. The reader is never told anything about his early life, except that he is seven years older than Sherlock Holmes, and, if anything, even cleverer. “He has the tidiest and most orderly brain,” says Sherlock, “with the greatest capacity for storing facts, of any man living”. His brilliance has given him a place at the heart of the secret government machinery in Whitehall, and he is a crucial source of intelligence. As Watson remarks, Mycroft is “the most indispensable man in the country”—“Again and again, his word has decided national policy.” Mycroft is considered by some critics to be the head of the secret service, although this is never speciﬁed. The real-life inspiration for Mycroft Holmes may well have been Robert Anderson, whose role in government (as head of the secret service and the CID, and a key adviser on government policy in the 1890s) closely corresponds to that of Mycroft in the stories. Although Holmes’s fame as a detective is unparalleled, he was by no means the ﬁrst ﬁctional sleuth. Edgar Allan Poe, Émile Gaboriau, and Wilkie Collins had all written about detectives, each of which can be seen, to some extent, in Holmes. From Poe, Conan Doyle drew upon the ideas of the “locked room mystery” and solving clues by clever deduction; from Gaboriau came forensic science and crime scene investigation; and from Collins something of Holmes’s appearance. But when Conan Doyle was asked about his inspiration for Holmes, he didn’t mention any of these ﬁctional ﬁgures. Instead, he referred to the real-life Dr. Joseph Bell (see p.43)—one of his former professors at Edinburgh University, who was renowned for his close observation and powers of deduction. Bell, too, had an interest in forensic science, and was often called as an expert for criminal trials. In 1892, Conan Doyle wrote to Bell, “It is most certainly to you that I owe Sherlock Holmes.” But Bell wrote back, “...you are yourself Sherlock Holmes and well you know it”. ■ 26 I WAS A WHETSTONE FOR HIS MIND. IDR.STIMULATED HIM JOHN WATSON D r. John Watson is the narrator of all but four of the Sherlock Holmes tales. He is the essential witness to Holmes’s brilliance, and the tireless biographer who records the detective’s deeds and conveys them to the public in his memoirs. Holmes acknowledges Watson’s considerable skills as a chronicler in the short story “A Scandal in Bohemia” (pp.56–61), when he urges Watson to stay and meet his new client, saying “I am lost without my Boswell.” This likening of Watson to James Boswell (1740–1795), the highly acclaimed biographer of Dr. Samuel Johnson, diarist, and lawyer, is an accolade indeed. A key ﬁgure Watson is a simple but ingenious literary device. With Watson addressing the reader directly, the narrative becomes immediate and engaging. He explains what is going on and the reader identiﬁes with him, following his ups and downs as he witnesses Holmes in action, and experiences bafﬂement and wonder. And since Holmes’s arrival at the truth generally takes Watson by surprise, the reader also feels the thrill of discovery when the time comes for Holmes to reveal it. But Watson is so much more than a mere observer. He is the warm-hearted and good-humored everyman to Holmes’s cool and high-ﬂown pragmatist. In an early version of A Study in Scarlet (pp.36–45), Conan Doyle gave Holmes a partner named Ormond Sacker before settling on the more down-to-earth name of John H Watson. Watson is loyal, steadfast, and utterly dependable. Holmes The Baker Street household Holmes and Watson rent their Baker Street rooms from the long-suffering landlady, Mrs. Hudson. Although she appears only brieﬂy throughout the canon, her affection for the two men is unmistakable. Not only does she put up with Holmes conducting chemical experiments, ﬁring a gun indoors, and taking drugs, she also answers the door at all hours to a string of miscellaneous visitors. 221B Baker Street is a suite of rooms on the second and third ﬂoors of the house, with the sitting room on the second ﬂoor, overlooking the street, and Holmes’s bedroom at the back; Watson’s room is on the ﬂoor above, looking out over the rear yard. In fact, the address never actually existed; at the time, Baker Street ended at number 83. The house that is now home to the Sherlock Holmes Museum was then in Upper Baker Street, although it is very similar to the description in the stories. In 1990, it was ofﬁcially given the number 221B. DR JOHN WATSON 27 Conﬁdante and companion, Watson (left) talks with Holmes in “The Stockbroker’s Clerk.” The illustration is by Sidney Paget from the March 1893 edition of The Strand Magazine. is sometimes rude to him, and Watson, in turn, complains about the detective’s egotism, but, as Holmes asserts in The Hound of the Baskervilles (pp.152–61), “there is no man better worth having at your side when you are in a tight place.” In “The Adventure of Charles Augustus Milverton” (pp.186–87), Lestrade describes his suspect as “a middle-sized, strongly built man—square jaw, thick neck, moustache,” and Holmes replies that this sounds like Watson, as indeed it is. Watson is an armytrained crack shot and was once athletic, playing for the famous Blackheath Rugby Club. But he also has a war injury and a taste for wine and tobacco. Watson’s past In A Study in Scarlet, the reader learns that Watson qualiﬁed as a medical doctor at St. Bartholomew’s Hospital in London in 1878, suggesting he was born around 1853. After qualifying, he signed up as an army surgeon with the 5th Good old Watson! You are the one ﬁxed point in a changing age. Sherlock Holmes Northumberland Fusiliers and was posted to the Second Afghan War, where he was shot at the Battle of Maiwand in July 1880, in the arm or the leg—the narratives are confusing on this detail. While recovering in the hospital, he became ill with typhoid and was sent home with his health “irretrievably ruined”, and was discharged from the army with a meager pension. With apparently no family to turn to, Watson was left adrift in London. It was at this low point that Stamford, Watson’s old friend from medical school, introduced him to Sherlock Holmes, who was looking for someone to share his lodgings at 221B Baker Street. Thereafter, much of Watson’s life revolved around Holmes and his escapades. At some point, however, Watson moved out of 221B and became a successful medical practitioner. Holmes has such respect for Watson’s expertise that he keeps him at a distance to stop him from seeing through his feigned illness in “The Adventure of the Dying Detective” (pp.234–35). Personal relationships Watson’s marital status is difﬁcult to establish. The reader learns that he marries Mary Morstan, the young woman who seeks Holmes’s help in The Sign of Four (pp.46–55), yet in “The Adventure of the Empty House” (pp.162–67) it seems she has died. However, in some later tales, Watson has a wife, and Holmesians have often speculated on her identity. Fans are also intrigued by Watson’s assertion that he has “an experience of women which extends over many nations and three separate continents,” though given that he is comparing them to Mary when he ﬁrst meets her, this is probably just the hyperbole of a man in love. Watson is sometimes portrayed as dull-witted. Even Conan Doyle once called him Holmes’s “rather stupid friend.” However, while he may lag behind in brains, he more than makes up for it in reliability and integrity. Watson is Holmes’s rock and only friend, and Holmes makes very clear in “The Dying Detective” just how much Watson means to him: “You won’t fail me,” he says, “You never did fail me.” ■ 28 HE SITS MOTIONLESS LIKE A SPIDER IN THE CENTRE OF ITS WEB PROFESSOR JAMES MORIARTY C onan Doyle created Professor James Moriarty simply to provide a ﬁtting opponent with whom his hero could grapple during his goodbye to the world in “The Final Problem” (pp.142–47). Although Moriarty apparently died after his brief, dramatic encounter with Holmes at the Reichenbach Falls in Switzerland, and he only appears directly in one other story, The Valley of Fear (pp.212–21)—set earlier in Holmes’s career—his powerful specter seems to haunt the later tales. The character of Moriarty became established in readers’ minds, and today we can hardly talk of Holmes without mentioning his nemesis—Moriarty is forever linked to the great detective’s legacy. Holmes’s equal The professor’s power to terrify may stem from the fact that he is a mirror image of Holmes: the man the great detective might have become had he chosen to follow a sinister path. Moriarty is a spinechilling version of Holmes: both men have high foreheads and sharp eyes, but in Moriarty’s case everything is more drawn and exaggerated. Tall and thin, with sunken eyes and a protruding chin, his head moves from “side to side in curiously reptilian fashion.” Moriarty came from a privileged background and received an excellent education that set him Released in 1922, the movie Moriarty (originally titled Sherlock Holmes in the US) starred German actor Gustav von Seyffertitz as the brilliant criminal mastermind Professor Moriarty. on a path toward respectability. Naturally brilliant at mathematics (a subject Conan Doyle hated), at the age of 21 he wrote a treatise on algebra that achieved recognition throughout Europe. He was also celebrated for his brilliant book on the dynamics of asteroids, which Holmes remarks is so advanced that “no man in the scientiﬁc press was capable of criticising it.” On the back of this work, Moriarty became a professor of mathematics at an English university. But then unspeciﬁed “dark rumours” began The greatest schemer of all time, the organiser of every devilry, the controlling brain of the underworld, a brain which might have made or marred the destiny of nations—that’s the man! Sherlock Holmes PROFESSOR JAMES MORIARTY 29 to circulate about him, and he relocated to London to begin his criminal career. And what a career it was. Moriarty became the ultimate mastermind, drawing on his prodigious intellect to run a vast crime network, the largest ever seen, and yet remain invisible at its heart, entirely above suspicion, as the Professor Moriarty of mathematical celebrity. “Like a spider,” he sat at the center, pulling the strings of this criminal web—“the organizer of half that is evil and of nearly all that is undetected in this great city.” It took the equal genius of Holmes to ﬁnally trace the threads back to him. Brain of the underworld The brilliance of Moriarty’s schemes means that no one can ever pin down the source of his criminal gains, whether it is burglary, extortion, or forgery. Holmes likens him to Jonathan Wild, who in the 18th century “was a master criminal… the hidden force of the London criminals, to whom he sold his brains and his organization on a ﬁfteen per cent commission.” Wild pretended to be a thief-taker, earning fame and money for the way his network caught criminals—but it Adam Worth Sidney Paget’s illustration of Moriarty ﬁrst appeared in “The Final Problem,” which was published in the December 1893 edition of The Strand Magazine. was also he who was organizing the crime. Holmes scholars have identiﬁed various other candidates who may have provided Conan Doyle with the inspiration for Moriarty, but by far the strongest is the true-life criminal genius Adam Worth. Indeed, the similarity in their methods is so marked that the US detective William Pinkerton, head of the famous Pinkerton Detective Agency, believed that Conan Doyle should pay him royalties, as he had told the author all about Worth during a transatlantic voyage. There are two major clues that lend weight to this theory. Firstly, in “The Final Problem” Moriarty is referred to as the “Napoleon of crime”—a moniker that was coined for Adam Worth. Secondly, in The Valley of Fear, Holmes reports that the professor has hanging in his study an incredibly valuable, and famous, painting of a coquettish young woman that he could only have acquired through theft. It is easy to believe that this is Conan Doyle’s reference to Worth’s temporary “ownership” of Thomas Gainsborough’s alluring portrait of Georgiana, Duchess of Devonshire, which he had personally cut from its frame in the gallery in which it was hanging, having reportedly become smitten with it. ■ German-born American supercriminal Adam Worth (1848–1902) was dubbed the “Napoleon of crime” by Scotland Yard’s Robert Anderson for his skill in running a major crime network from his home in London. Like Moriarty, Worth was an expert operator, staying at arm’s length from his crimes; unlike Moriarty, however, he was opposed to the use of violence, and treated the men who worked for him as family. Indeed, the only reason he ﬁnally served a prison term (for petty crime) was because he got caught while going to the aid of one of his gang. Worth began his life of crime in the US, as a bank robber, before moving to London to set up as a respectable art collector and the head of a criminal syndicate involved in robbery and forgery. For years, he outfoxed the world’s police by conducting bloodless, well-executed crimes without leaving a shred of incriminating evidence. For example, there was nothing to link him to his theft of a Thomas Gainsborough artwork, which he carried with him for 25 years before shrewdly negotiating a $25,000 fee for its return. 30 I AM A PRACTICAL MAN MR. HOLMES AND WHEN I HAVE GOT MY EVIDENCE I COME TO MY CONCLUSIONS INSPECTOR G. LESTRADE I nspector G. Lestrade is the Scotland Yard detective who appears repeatedly throughout the Holmes canon. Many other police detectives make a ﬂeeting appearance, from Inspector Stanley Hopkins in “The Adventure of Black Peter” (pp.184–85) to Inspector Bardle in “The Adventure of the Lion’s Mane” (pp.278–83), but Lestrade is the only persistent presence. First appearing in A Study in Scarlet (pp.36–45) in 1887, Lestrade is still there in “The Adventure of the Three Garridebs” (pp.262–65), which Conan Doyle wrote 37 years later. Conan Doyle seems to have gotten Lestrade’s name from a fellow medical student at Edinburgh, Joseph Alexandre Lestrade, and the initial “G” may be an echo of the Prefect of Police known only as “G___” in Edgar Allan Poe’s story The Purloined Letter (1845). Watson describes the inspector as “a little sallow rat-faced, dark-eyed fellow” and later as “a lean, ferret-like man, furtive and sly-looking.” Very little Inspector Lestrade arresting Jim Browner in “The Cardboard Box,” ﬁrst published in the UK in The Strand Magazine (1893). else is known about Lestrade, but he is probably part of the new breed of tenacious professional policemen who made their way up through the ranks from humble beginnings— the kind ﬁrst depicted in ﬁction in the form of Inspector Bucket in Charles Dickens’ Bleak House (1853) and Inspector Cuff in Wilkie Collins’ The Moonstone (1868). Fact or ﬁction? Both Bucket and Cuff were based on the real-life Detective Inspector Jonathan “Jack” Whicher (1814– 1881), one of the eight original members of the Detective Branch set up at Scotland Yard in 1842. Whicher reached the pinnacle of his fame with the infamous Constance Kent murder mystery in 1860, INSPECTOR G. LESTRADE 31 I really cannot undertake to go about the country looking for a left-handed gentleman with a game leg. I should become the laughing-stock of Scotland Yard. Inspector Lestrade recalled in Kate Summerscale’s 2009 book The Suspicions of Mr. Whicher. Readers both of the ﬁctional stories and of the real-life crime reports at the time got a particular frisson from the way such lowly men probed behind the facade of well-to-do respectability to lay bare their corruption. Holmes, of course, has a more aristocratic brilliance, and when he ﬁrst meets Lestrade, he can barely conceal his low opinion. “[Gregson and] Lestrade are the best of a bad lot. They are both quick and energetic, but conventional—shockingly so…” His ridicule soon becomes so marked it seems almost snobbery. But Conan Doyle may have been drawing inspiration from real life. A tarnished reputation By the 1880s, Scotland Yard’s reputation, so bright in Whicher’s day, had been tarnished by the way in which Inspector John Shore and his fellow detectives were given the runaround by Adam Worth, the real-life criminal mastermind who was one of the inspirations for Conan Doyle’s Moriarty (p.29). Worth made Shore look ﬂat-footed and incompetent, and Shore never caught his man despite years of dogged pursuit. Scotland Yard’s reputation hit another low in 1888, when they failed to make any headway with the appalling Jack the Ripper murders (p.315). Mutual respect Over the years, however, Holmes’s contemptuous attitude toward Lestrade seems to mellow. At ﬁrst, Lestrade doesn’t think much of Holmes either. So, perhaps sensing Holmes’s ridicule, he declares himself to be a practical detective who deals in facts—in contrast to the abstract thinking of amateurs like Holmes. But as he sees Holmes solve case after case, he comes to admire the detective’s methods. Holmes, in turn, begins to respect some of Lestrade’s qualities, and allows the inspector to take the credit for his deductions. In “The Cardboard Box” (pp.110–11), Holmes admits that Lestrade is “tenacious as a bulldog when he once understands what he has to do, and indeed, it is just this tenacity which has brought him to the top at Scotland Yard.” And when Holmes comes back from the dead in “The Adventure of the Empty House” (pp.162–67), he trusts Lestrade enough to let him in on his secret. Lestrade returns the compliment, saying, “It’s good to see you back in London, sir.” By the time of “The Adventure of the Six Napoleons” (pp.188–89), it turns out that Lestrade regularly drops by at 221B Baker Street with updates and for advice. Lestrade even admits to a genuinely touched Holmes that “... we are very proud of you [down at Scotland Yard], and if you come down to-morrow there’s not a man, from the oldest inspector to the youngest constable, who wouldn’t be glad to shake you by the hand.” ■ The Baker Street Irregulars Despite appearances, Holmes rarely works entirely alone. In a number of investigations the detective is aided by his invisible army of helpers— the motley crew of street urchins known as the Baker Street Irregulars. In A Study in Scarlet, Watson describes them as “half a dozen of the dirtiest and most ragged street Arabs that ever I clapped eyes on,” but Holmes knows their value, calling them “the Baker Street division of the detective police force.” Shabby they may be, but for the price of a shilling a day, they can “go everywhere and hear everything.” No one but Holmes pays any attention to these dirty little children, led by a boy named Wiggins, but in many stories they provide crucial information. Besides the Irregulars, Holmes picks various other more humble members of society to help him—from the 14-year-old messenger Cartwright, who goes through hotel garbage cans in The Hound of the Baskervilles, to Billy the pageboy in The Valley of Fear. THE EAR ADVENT LY URES 34 THE EARLY ADVENTURES Holmes solves his ﬁrst case (see “The Gloria Scott,” pp.116–19). Holmes takes rooms by himself in London’s Montague Street (see A Study in Scarlet, pp.36–45). Holmes and Watson meet at St. Bartholomew’s Hospital, London. They lodge together at 221B Baker Street (see A Study in Scarlet, pp.36–45). Queen Victoria celebrates her Golden Jubilee. 1874 1877 JAN 1881 JUN 1887 1876–1881 Event in the lives of Holmes and Watson Conan Doyle studies medicine at Edinburgh University. IN THIS CHAPTER NOVELS A Study in Scarlet, 1887 The Sign of Four, 1890 COLLECTION The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, 1892 A Scandal in Bohemia The Red-Headed League A Case of Identity The Boscombe Valley Mystery The Five Orange Pips The Man with the Twisted Lip The Blue Carbuncle The Speckled Band The Engineer’s Thumb The Noble Bachelor The Beryl Coronet The Copper Beeches JUL 1880 JUN 1882 Conan Doyle moves to Southsea to set up a medical Watson is shot and wounded at the practice. He also Battle of Maiwand, Afghanistan renounces his (see A Study in Scarlet, pp.36–45). Catholic faith. S herlock Holmes and Dr. John Watson ﬁrst entered into the public consciousness in 1887, when the novel A Study in Scarlet was published in England in Beeton’s Christmas Annual. The story also featured two hapless inspectors, Gregson and Lestrade of Scotland Yard, along with Holmes’s gang of informal assistants, the “Baker Street Irregulars.” It was not a great success, but luckily found favor with the editor of Lippincott’s Magazine in the US (who published The Sign of Four three years later). A common device within the canon is established in A Study in Scarlet when American Jefferson Hope scrawls out the word “Rache” (“revenge”) in his own blood, having come to England seeking vengeance: stories that begin in foreign lands must be unraveled and concluded DEC 1887 Conan Doyle publishes A Study in Scarlet (pp.36–45) in Beeton’s Christmas Annual. by Holmes in London. Watson too sees himself washed up into the “great cesspool” of the British Empire, when he arrives in London after his wounding at the Battle of Maiwand in Afghanistan. A quickening pace Conan Doyle moved to London in March 1891; he had abandoned his struggling medical practice on England’s south coast, and was planning to set up shop as an ophthalmic surgeon. The ﬁrst four Holmes short stories were written during the following month, and began appearing in the newly founded The Strand Magazine soon afterward. This time, the sleuth was an instant success, and nothing could have prepared Conan Doyle for the readers’ enthusiasm. Holmes’s popularity also ensured the success INTRODUCTION 35 Watson marries Mary Morstan, and sets up a new medical practice (see “The Stockbroker’s Clerk,” pp.114–15). The Sign of Four appears in Lippincott’s Magazine. It is published as a novel in October. Holmes and Moriarty disappear into the Reichenbach Falls. The “Great Hiatus” begins (see “The Final Problem,” pp.142–47). The Strand Magazine begins publishing Holmes short stories as serializations. JAN 1889 FEB 1890 APR–MAY 1891 JUL 1891 FEB 1889 MAR 1891 MAY 1891 OCT 1892 Conan Doyle publishes Micah Clarke (p.344)—a historical novel. Conan Doyle arrives in London, by way of Venice, Milan, and Paris. He lodges at 23 Montague Place. Conan Doyle gives up his medical practice and decides to make his living from writing. Conan Doyle publishes The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes. of the Strand itself, since all of the detective’s subsequent outings appeared there, before being published in book form. Conan Doyle was paid £300 for the last six stories in The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes—dwarﬁng the £25 for which he had sold A Study in Scarlet. And when the Adventures was published as a book in October 1892, the author dedicated it to Joseph Bell—the Edinburgh medical professor on whom Holmes had been partly based. A complex character Watson’s famous list of Holmes’s intellectual faculties is featured in A Study in Scarlet; indeed, at this point, it seems that the detective is a pure reasoning machine. However, in The Sign of Four, his cocaine use and violin-playing reveal other elements of his character, perhaps inﬂuenced by the cult of “aestheticism.” Holmes displays a type of world-weariness so affected that it is known not as “boredom,” but rather by the French term ennui. Yet, conversely, the second novel brims with the kind of physical action that is absent from the ﬁrst. In fact, Holmes perpetually deﬁes Watson’s preconceptions: a result of Conan Doyle’s occasional inconsistencies, perhaps, or even the detective’s own evasiveness. Yet for all the variations in his character traits, Holmes’s physical appearance was set in these early years as Sidney Paget’s drawings ﬁrst appeared alongside the stories in the Strand. Holmes’ image was based on the artist’s brother Walter, and completed with the addition of the famous deerstalker hat. Bringing it all back home A thread of the exotic runs through the early stories, from the Indian backstory in The Sign of Four and Grimesby Roylott’s Indian “Swamp Adder” in “The Speckled Band,” to the penal transportation of British criminals to Australia in “The Boscombe Valley Mystery,” and Elias Openshaw’s exploits in the US Civil War in “The Five Orange Pips.” There is also a marked sense of playfulness in these early stories. “The Red-Headed League,” with its gullible pawnbroker Jabez Wilson, is a case in point, as is the duo’s brush with European royalty in “A Scandal in Bohemia.” In this story, Holmes’s admiration for the “adventuress” Irene Adler also sets the tone for the frequent shift of sympathies between high-society clients and supposed criminals. ■ THERE’S THE SCARLET THREAD OF MURDER RUNNING THROUGH THE COLOURLESS SKEIN OF LIFE A STUDY IN SCARLET (1887) 38 THE EARLY ADVENTURES IN CONTEXT TYPE Novel FIRST PUBLICATION UK: Beeton’s Christmas Annual, December 1887 NOVEL PUBLICATION Ward, Lock & Co. July 1888 Chapter 1 Stamford introduces Watson to Holmes and the two men agree to take rooms together. Chapter 3 Watson accompanies Holmes to a house in Brixton where an American named Drebber lies dead. Holmes examines the scene with a magnifying glass and tape measure. Chapter 5 Holmes tries to draw out the murderer with a newspaper ad about a ring left at the scene, but is outwitted by an accomplice disguised as an old woman. CHARACTERS Stamford Former medical colleague of Watson’s. Inspectors Lestrade and Tobias Gregson Scotland Yard policemen. PART 1 Enoch J. Drebber Elder of the Mormon church. Joseph Stangerson Mormon elder, and Drebber’s secretary. Chapter 2 Watson studies Holmes, who demonstrates his remarkable powers of armchair observation and deduction. Jefferson Hope Young American. Constable John Rance Policeman. Chapter 4 Holmes sends a telegram to the US police, then interviews the constable who discovered the body. Chapter 6 Gregson arrests Drebber’s landlady’s son Arthur, but then Lestrade ﬁnds Stangerson stabbed to death, exonerating Arthur. Wiggins Leader of a gang of London street urchins. Madame Charpentier Drebber’s landlady. Arthur Charpentier Naval ofﬁcer, and son of Madame Charpentier. Alice Charpentier Madame Charpentier’s daughter. John Ferrier Wanderer found by Mormons. Lucy Ferrier John Ferrier’s daughter. Brigham Young Real-life leader of the Mormon church. T he year is 1880 and military surgeon Dr. John H. Watson has been discharged from the army after being wounded in Afghanistan. Back in London and living on a meager army pension, he is looking for someone to share lodgings with. An old colleague of Watson, Stamford, introduces him to Sherlock Holmes (who calls himself the world’s only “consulting detective”), and the two men take up rooms at 221B Baker Street. On receiving a request for help from the police, Holmes invites Watson to accompany him. The pair meet inspectors Gregson and Lestrade of Scotland Yard at a house in Brixton, where a body has been found. Holmes deduces from the sour smell on the man’s lips that he has been poisoned. Documents identify him as Enoch Drebber, a US citizen, who is traveling with his secretary, Stangerson, and lodging with a Madame Charpentier. A woman’s wedding ring has been left at the scene, and after questioning Constable Rance, who found the body, Holmes suspects that a drunk seen hanging around the house was in fact the murderer A STUDY IN SCARLET 39 Chapter 7 Holmes astounds Gregson and Lestrade by luring the murderer, Jefferson Hope, to Baker Street and arresting him. Chapter 2 A few years later, Ferrier is now a successful farmer in the Mormon stronghold of Salt Lake City, and Lucy falls in love with a non-Mormon, Jefferson Hope. Chapter 4 Lucy, her father, and Hope leave under cover of darkness, heading for Carson City, trying in vain to escape the grip of the Mormons. Chapter 6 Back at Baker Street, the arrested Hope shows no remorse in avenging Lucy, and recounts in brief his adventures in London tracking down his victims. PART 2 Chapter 1 Many years earlier in the Utah desert, Mormon pilgrims rescue John Ferrier and his daughter Lucy, on condition they convert to the Mormon faith. returning to claim the ring. Other evidence suggests to Holmes that the murderer is a cabbie, although he does not reveal this to Watson. Gregson arrests the landlady’s son, Arthur Charpentier, who had confronted Drebber over his coarse behavior toward his sister Alice. Lestrade suspects the secretary Stangerson, but ﬁnds him stabbed to death, killed while Arthur was in custody. A pillbox containing two pills is found with his body. Back at 221B, Holmes tests the pills on a sick terrier; the ﬁrst is harmless, but the second kills the dog. Chapter 3 When the Mormon leader, Brigham Young, says that Lucy must marry either Drebber or Stangerson, polygamist church elders, Ferrier and his daughter plan to ﬂee. Chapter 5 Stangerson kills Ferrier, and when Lucy is forced to marry Drebber she dies broken-hearted. Drebber and Stangerson are exiled from the faith, and Hope hunts them down in Europe. Learning from the police in the US that Drebber had sought protection from a man named Jefferson Hope, Holmes instructs a gang of street urchins, known as the “Baker Street Irregulars,” to trace a cabbie by that name and lure him to Baker Street. When Hope arrives, Holmes arrests him before an astonished Gregson and Lestrade. The second section of the novel begins in Salt Lake City, Utah, in 1847. Here, it is revealed that Hope had been in love with a young woman called Lucy, who had died of a broken heart after Stangerson Chapter 7 Hope dies before his trial, Holmes tells Watson how he solved the murder, and Watson vows to make the case public. killed her father and she was forced to marry Drebber. The action then returns to Baker Street, where Hope reveals how he forced Drebber to make a choice between two pills; Drebber would take one while he would take the other. Drebber chose the poisoned pill and died. Hope accidentally left a keepsake, Lucy’s wedding ring, at the scene. Hope dies of a heart condition before he can be brought to trial. To Watson’s indignation, a newspaper report gives all the credit for solving the case to Gregson and Lestrade, and barely mentions Holmes. ■ 40 THE EARLY ADVENTURES T his is where the legend of Sherlock Holmes begins. Within the ﬁrst few pages of his 1887 novel A Study in Scarlet, Conan Doyle establishes not only the eccentric and brilliant nature of his hero Holmes, but also the great detective’s essential partnership with Watson and his atmospheric vision of Victorian London. The relationship between the two men and the setting of their adventures both played an essential role in the success of the many Holmes stories that would follow. Before the two future partners meet, Watson’s friend Stamford warns him that his potential fellow lodger “appears to have a passion for deﬁnite and exact knowledge,” and may be a bit too scientiﬁc and cold-blooded for his tastes. He tells Watson that Holmes even beats corpses in the dissecting-rooms with a stick to see how a dead body bruises after death (in mentioning this, Conan Doyle is eager to show that his sleuth is at the forefront of current developments in criminal investigation). Holmes claims to have created a new and groundbreaking process for detecting bloodstains—“the Sherlock Holmes’s test”. The fact that we never hear of this test again in any subsequent Holmes tale is not that important; Conan Doyle is simply trying to establish Holmes as the world’s ﬁrst forensic detective. Holmes the magician But Holmes’s genius does not end with forensics. On ﬁrst meeting Watson, he famously says, “You have been in Afghanistan, I perceive,” revealing his remarkable powers of observation. Holmes is able to pick out minute details, You have brought detection as near an exact science as it ever will be brought in this world. Dr. Watson Watson was injured at the Battle of Maiwand, July 1880, in the Second Anglo-Afghan war. This painting shows the British Royal Horse Artillery saving their guns from the Afghans. assemble them in a rational and inspired fashion, and reach a conclusion that makes him seem like a magician performing an amazing trick. Later, in 221B, Watson picks up a magazine and reads an article on “the Science of Deduction and Analysis” which says, “By a man’s ﬁnger-nails, by his coat-sleeve, by his boot, by his trouser-knees, by the callosities of his foreﬁnger and thumb, by his expression, by his shirt-cuffs... a man’s calling is plainly revealed.” When Watson dismisses this extract out loud as “ineffable twaddle” and “the theory of some armchair lounger,” Holmes reveals that he was the author. He then explains how he knew Watson had recently been in Afghanistan. Watson is a doctor, and this fact, combined with the details that Holmes observes about his person and clothing, enables Holmes to A STUDY IN SCARLET 41 deduce that Watson has recently seen service in war-torn Afghanistan that ended in an injury (see below). “The whole train of thought did not occupy a second,” says Holmes, with typical immodesty. Creating a legend Conan Doyle famously based Holmes’s powers of observation on those of his mentor at Edinburgh University’s medical school, Dr. Joseph Bell (see p.43). In the preface to Sherlock Holmes—The Complete Long Stories (1929), he later wrote: “Having endured a severe course of training in medical diagnosis, I felt that if the same austere methods of observation and reasoning were applied to the problems of crime some more scientiﬁc system could be constructed.” For Holmes to appeal to the reader, Conan Doyle knew that he had to be more than a scientiﬁc cypher: he had to be enthralling in his own right. To the hypocritical society of the time—which covered up the legs of a piano for the sake of decorum, yet allowed prostitution The most commonplace crime is often the most mysterious, because it presents no new or special features from which deductions may be drawn. Sherlock Holmes to ﬂourish in London’s East End— there was nothing more fascinating than a ﬂamboyant bohemian with a disregard for convention. Conan Doyle imbued his sleuth with an array of idiosyncrasies. The reader learns quickly that Holmes plays the violin well, and is a boxer, a swordsman, and an expert in singlestick (a martial art that uses a wooden stick). He has written a monograph on cigarette ash, keeps a tape measure and a magnifying glass in his pocket, and chatters to himself as he looks for clues. Holmes is particularly proud of his “brain-attic,” in which he stores only essential information. As he explains: “I consider that a man’s brain originally is like a little empty attic, and you have to stock it with such furniture as you choose… It is a mistake to think that that little room has elastic walls and can distend to any extent.” When Holmes declares, to Watson’s amazement, that he did not know that the Earth orbits the sun, he tells Watson: “Now that I do know it I shall do my best to forget it.” The armchair detective Holmes explains to Watson that when either the police or the many private detectives in London are stumped by a case, they come to him, and he puts them on the right track, without ever having to leave his armchair. In A Study in Scarlet more than in any of the subsequent Holmes stories, this is indeed his main role. Even before the start of ❯❯ Holmes observes Dr. Watson and forms a conclusion Watson is a medical type with the air of a military man, so he must be an army doctor. He has a dark face, yet pale wrists, showing that he is deeply tanned. His haggard face clearly shows that he has undergone hardship and sickness. He holds his left arm in a stiff and unnatural manner, showing that it has been injured. Watson has been discharged from the army after military service abroad. 42 THE EARLY ADVENTURES the central case, Watson notes how a stream of visitors of both sexes, and all ages and classes (police inspectors, “a young girl,” “a Jew pedlar,” “a railway porter,” and an “old white-haired gentleman”), are redirected by private inquiry agencies to call upon Holmes at 221B for help. When the main case in A Study in Scarlet does get underway, Holmes travels to the crime scene, where he investigates enthusiastically. “As I watched him,” says Watson, “I was irresistibly reminded of a pure-blooded, well-trained foxhound as it dashes backwards and forwards through the covert, whining in its eagerness, until it comes across the lost scent.” But for most of the story, the action occurs without direct involvement from Holmes, and the culprit is ultimately apprehended in his Baker Street sitting room. Conan Doyle had to adjust this approach in later stories, allowing Holmes to go out and investigate crime, and be more of a man of action, or an “amateur bloodhound,” as Watson calls him in A Study in Scarlet. However, he never fully loses his propensity for solving crimes from the comfort of his armchair. …he was as sensitive to ﬂattery on the score of his art as any girl could be of her beauty. Dr. Watson Watson’s notes on Holmes 1. Knowledge of Litera 2. Philosophy.—Nil. ture.—Nil. 3. Astronomy.—Nil. 4. Politics.—Feeble. na, opium , and . Well up in belladon 5. Botany.—Va riable cal gardening. ows nothing of practi poisons generally. Kn a glance different but limited. Tells at al, tic ac Pr .— gy olo 6. Ge me splashes upon After walks has shown soils from each other. d consistence in me by their colour an his trousers, and told he had received them. what part of London nd. 7. Chemistry.—Profou , but unsystematic. 8. Anatomy.—Accurate appears to know ture.—Immense . He 9. Sensational Litera the century. horror perpetrated in every detail of every ll. 10. Plays the violin we d swordsman. stick player, boxer, an 11. Is an expert single h law. cal knowledge of Britis 12. Has a good practi Watson’s vital role Every genius needs someone more ordinary to illuminate their powers, and Conan Doyle uses Watson in this role, deﬁning his character in the ﬁrst few chapters. A man who is in the best of neither health nor spirits, Watson is friendless and has no real purpose in life at the beginning of the story. He says of himself “how objectless was my life, and how little there was to engage my attention.” He ﬁlls his time closely observing his fellow lodger, even to the extent of making a list called “Sherlock Holmes—his limits.” Many of its observations, such as that Holmes’s knowledge of literature is “nil,” prove in later stories to be inaccurate. For a short while, Watson’s study of Holmes becomes a kind of hobby— “this man stimulated my curiosity,” he notes. But Watson very quickly assumes the role of Holmes’s fullﬂedged assistant in investigating the Brixton murder. Presumably it is for his own interest that Watson makes detailed notes during the investigation. However, these jottings come in very handy when he decides to write up the notes to showcase the genius of Holmes in bringing the murderer to justice. It is also this act that seals the burgeoning relationship between Holmes and Watson: transforming himself from Holmes’s companion to his biographer, Watson follows in the footsteps of the celebrated A STUDY IN SCARLET 43 diarist James Boswell, who became the biographer of the famous writer Samuel Johnson a century earlier. Holmes’s London While Conan Doyle recreates the streets and gardens of London in A Study in Scarlet, he had not lived in the city by that point; at the time he wrote the story he was residing in Southsea near Portsmouth, Hampshire. Instead, he must have acquired all his knowledge of the English capital from maps and gazetteers. The story takes us from Baker Street via hansom cabs to just a few well-known London areas, such as Brixton, Camberwell, Kennington Park, and Euston. Like Robert Louis Stevenson in Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (1886), Conan Doyle used his own home city, Edinburgh, as a model for London. The ﬁctional Lauriston Gardens in Brixton, where the ﬁrst corpse is discovered, was actually based on Lauriston Place in the Victorian London was the backdrop for many of the Holmes tales, even before Conan Doyle moved to the city. The London settings included ﬁctional places and real landmarks. Scottish capital. But interspersed with these ﬁctional locations are real-life London landmarks, some of which still survive. For example, in the ﬁrst pages of the book, Watson waits for Stamford standing at the Criterion Bar in Piccadilly, which exists to this day. Forgivable faults It is easy to ﬁnd fault with A Study in Scarlet. The structure is clumsy and the mystery itself somewhat contrived, and the central villain Jefferson Hope is a fairly featureless character too. Hope lacks any of the distinguishing qualities of the charismatic villains who were to cross Holmes’s path in later stories; Conan Doyle merely uses him as a pawn to further his plot. Another problem with A Study in Scarlet is that Holmes is such a brilliant detective that he very quickly sees to the heart of any case. Because he succeeds in solving the murder mystery and apprehending the culprit halfway through the narrative, there is little left for Holmes to do. Conan Doyle then takes the reader on a long ﬂashback to the wilds of Utah, detailing the history of the links between Hope, Drebber, and Stangerson, and their connection to the Mormon church. As a result, Holmes necessarily disappears from the scene, and only returns in the last two short chapters. The almost-too-quick genius of Holmes was a structural problem that Conan Doyle did not fully resolve in his later Sherlock Holmes novels either. He resorted to the ﬂashback device once again in The Sign of Four (pp.46–55) and The Valley of Fear (pp.212–21). And Holmes is also absent for much of The Hound of the Baskervilles (pp.152–61), although Watson is on hand for the entire story. ❯❯ An inspirational teacher In his 1924 autobiography, Conan Doyle explained the inspiration behind Holmes’s amazing powers of deduction. “I thought of my old teacher Joe Bell…” At Edinburgh University’s medical school, Dr. Joseph Bell (1837–1911) had made Conan Doyle his outpatient clerk, who recalled that Bell “…often learned more of the patient by a few quick glances than I had done by my questions.” On one occasion, Bell amazed the students gathered around him by pronouncing that the patient standing before them had served in the army, and had been recently discharged from serving as a noncommissioned ofﬁcer in a Highland regiment on Barbados. Bell explained, “You see, gentlemen, the man was a respectful man but did not remove his hat. They do not in the army, but he would have learned civilian ways had he been long discharged. He has an air of authority and he is obviously Scottish. As to Barbados, his complaint is elephantiasis, which is West Indian and not British.” 44 THE EARLY ADVENTURES There is a mystery about this which stimulates the imagination; where there is no imagination there is no horror. Sherlock Holmes some extensive reading on the church—so much so that he felt he could even include the real-life ﬁgure of Brigham Young in his cast of characters. Conan Doyle researched various volumes for his descriptions of Utah, as he did for London in the English section of the book. But he was not sufﬁciently careful in his placing of the Rio Grande, which appears to have wandered from its usual setting; “These little things happen,” Conan Doyle is said to have admitted when this was pointed out to him. Seldom bettered It may seem strange to the modern reader that Conan Doyle inserted such a long ﬂashback into the middle of a detective story. At the time the author believed it would add an exotic appeal to the story, especially since the Mormons were very much in the news when Conan Doyle sat down to write this tale. The previous year he had attended a meeting of the Portsmouth Literary and Scientiﬁc Society, where the subject of Mormon polygamy had been addressed. By the time he was writing A Study in Scarlet, he had clearly carried out While it is possible to pinpoint numerous holes in the plot of this tale if you look hard enough, in the end none of these faults are what really matters. What remains in the reader’s mind is the well-deﬁned central character of Holmes. This brilliant characterization is most sharply demonstrated in the ﬁrst part of A Study in Scarlet, in which the detective makes a succession of brilliant deductions about the corpse in the house in Brixton—a sequence that has rarely been bettered in crime ﬁction. On his arrival at the scene, Holmes Brigham Young The only real-life historical ﬁgure Conan Doyle used as a character in a Holmes story was Brigham Young (1801–77). Born in Vermont, Young became a Methodist in 1823. He joined Joseph Smith’s Church of Jesus Christ of Latterday Saints after reading The Book of Mormon, and rose to become its leader. He was called the “American Moses” after leading his followers through the desert to the “promised land” of Utah, where the Mormons founded their headquarters in Salt Lake City. Holmes carefully examines the word “Rache” written in blood on a wall at the murder scene. The way the letters have been written gives him vital clues as to the identity of the killer. immediately chastises Gregson for allowing everyone to trample over the pathway, destroying potentially vital footprint evidence. “If a herd of buffaloes had passed along there could not be a greater mess,” he says. Inside the house, Holmes Conan Doyle’s depiction of both Young and Mormonism may be harsh, but he was never one to let facts get in the way of a good story, and at the time it was not regarded as particularly controversial. However, Conan Doyle was later criticized for defaming the faith, and years after his death, Brigham Young’s descendant Levi Edgar Young claimed that Conan Doyle had privately apologized, saying that “he had been misled by writings of the time about the Church,” and admitted that he had written “a scurrilous book.” A STUDY IN SCARLET 45 ﬂings himself to the ground with his magnifying glass before rattling off a list of facts to the dumbfounded Watson, Gregson, and Lestrade. When Conan Doyle juxtaposes Holmes’s powers with Watson’s ordinariness, he makes those powers seem even more impressive; this effect is then ampliﬁed when Holmes is compared to the two bungling detectives. In their efforts to better one another, Lestrade and Gregson show just how far behind Holmes they are in terms of both acumen and perception. Neither of the two inspectors can explain the blood spattered around the murder scene, though Holmes privately surmises (correctly, it is later revealed) that the murderer must have had a nose bleed. Lestrade boasts to Gregson and Holmes that the murderer wrote “Rache” on the wall because he was disturbed before he could ﬁnish spelling the word “Rachel,” but Holmes bursts his bubble by pointing out that Rache is German for “revenge.” Immortality beckons In his 1947 essay “Lear, Tolstoy and the Fool,” George Orwell wrote of Shakespeare that, like every other writer, sooner or later he will be forgotten. If the same applies to Conan Doyle, it is hard to envision his most famous creation suffering the same fate—Sherlock Holmes now has an identity beyond the pages of the novels and stories in which he ﬁrst appeared. Conan Doyle had great hopes for A Study in Scarlet, which it is believed took him only three weeks to write. But potential publishers Beeton’s Christmas Annual was a paperback magazine produced from 1860 to 1898. Only 10 copies of the magazine containing the ﬁrst Holmes adventure are known to have survived. were initially less enthusiastic: The Cornhill Magazine rejected it as reading like a cheap “shilling dreadful.” In the end, Conan Doyle accepted the derisory one-time fee of £25 for it to appear in Beeton’s Christmas Annual for 1887, which indeed cost just a shilling—ﬁve pence in modern money. To add insult to injury, its magazine debut caused barely a ripple with the reading public. Having signed away the rights to it, Conan Doyle would never receive another penny for this, his ﬁrst Holmes story, even when it was reprinted in book form just over a year later. However, A Study in Scarlet has remained in print ever since, just like every other Holmes story. ■ I NEVER MAKE EXCEPTIONS. AN EXCEPTION DISPROVES THE RULE THE SIGN OF FOUR (1890) 48 THE EARLY ADVENTURES IN CONTEXT TYPE Novel FIRST PUBLICATION US: Lippincott’s Monthly Magazine, February 1890 NOVEL PUBLICATION Spencer Blackett publishers, October 1890 Chapter One Watson rails against Holmes’s drug use, The detective analyzes the story behind Watson’s watch. Chapter Three Mary shows Holmes a plan of a building on which a note has been scribbled about the “sign of the four,” found among her father’s papers. Chapter Five Holmes, Watson, and Thaddeus ﬁnd Bartholomew murdered by a poisoned dart and the treasure gone. CHARACTERS Mary Morstan Young governess. Captain Morstan Mary’s father. Thaddeus Sholto English gentleman. Bartholomew Sholto Thaddeus’s brother. Chapter Two Mary Morstan asks for Holmes’s help in solving the twin mysteries of her missing father and an anonymous benefactor who now wants to meet her. McMurdo Pondicherry Lodge porter and gatekeeper. Lal Rao Butler at Pondicherry Lodge. Chapter Four Mary’s benefactor, Thaddeus Sholto, reveals that her father is dead and that his own late father hid “the Agra treasure,” which his brother Bartholomew has now found. Mrs. Bernstone Housekeeper at Pondicherry Lodge. Major Sholto T