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Mobile Marketing is a clear, practical guide to harnessing the mobile consumer and tackling the rising challenges of divided user attention across multiple screens at the same time. It demystifies the vast spectrum of tools and techniques now available and explains how to optimize these dynamics into an innovative and effective mobile marketing strategy. Now that website search rankings take into account mobile optimization, no serious marketer can do without a thorough understanding of mobile.

The first edition of Mobile Marketing won the Judge's Choice Award in Social Media at the Small Business Trend's 2014 Book Awards. This fully revised 2nd edition includes straightforward explanations on mobile optimized content, app development, social media and proximity based marketing. It has also expanded to include two brand new chapters on mobile and email and on location-based devices, plus cutting-edge updates on advances in wearable technology, mobile payments, virtual reality and strategies for the changing user journey. Integrated with tactical checklists, easy application frameworks and powerful case study insights such as Heineken, WordPress, MailChimp, Nike Training Club (NTC), Google Play and Moz, if provides a full overview from service provision and technology integration to content strategy, ready to capture fast-moving consumers on the go. Online resources include a digital marketing instructors manual, supporting lecture slides, example exam and self-test questions, and a content calendar template.

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Second Edition

Mobile Marketing
How mobile technology is revolutionizing
marketing, communications and advertising
Daniel Rowles

Title Page
List of figures
Looking in the wrong direction
Focus on the user journey
The human element
Back to basics
PART ONE Mobile marketing in perspective
01 Introduction
02 Understanding the user journey
Technology for the sake of technology
User journey and context
Mobile and multi-channel marketing
A multi-screen journey
User journey examples
Local intent
Content marketing
The stages of the user journey
Content mapping
Value proposition and user journey
03 Technology change and adoption
Forty years of radical change
Integrated devices

Smartphone adoption
Global variations
Benchmarking marketing activity
04 Disruption and integration
The death of in-store retail
Convenience, choice and transparency
Business culture
Single-customer view
Next step: marketing automation
Mobile as a change enabler
05 Devices, platforms and technology: why it doesn’t matter
Mobile-compatible is not mobile-optimized
Technology challenges
Audience segmentation
Frictionless technology
06 The future of mobile marketing
Exponential development
Technology as an enabler
The near future
Making things easier
The distant future
A guaranteed future prediction
PART TWO The tactical toolkit
07 Introduction
08 Mobile sites and responsive design
Start with the fundamentals
Mobile site options
Mobile design principles: mobile sites vs desktop sites
Technology and jargon in perspective
What responsive design really means
The three-step quick and dirty guide to a responsive website
A user-centred approach to mobile sites
Mobile sites: conclusions

09 Mobile and e-mail
Focusing on mobile users
Focusing on relevance
E-mail and the user journey
Selecting an e-mail service provider
Gaining opt-ins and building a list
List segmentation
E-mail templates and design
E-mail marketing: conclusions
10 How to build an app
Bolstering val; ue proposition
The app-building process
Specification and wireframing
Interaction and visual design
Technical development and testing
App store submission
App marketing
App maintenance
Customer support
Freelancers vs agencies
Native apps vs web apps
Platform wars
Building an app: conclusions
11 Social media and mobile
User journey and value proposition
Mobile social media experience
Informing your social media approach
Policy and planning
Outreach, engagement and ego
Social measurement
Social media advertising
Mobile social media: conclusions
12 Mobile search
Defining mobile search
Desktop vs mobile results
Search engine optimization (SEO)

Link building
Mobile SEO: conclusions
Paid search
PPC fundamentals
PPC considerations
Working with PPC agencies
Mobile SEO and PPC working together
Mobile search: conclusions
13 Mobile advertising
Mobile advertising objectives
App advertising
Ad networks vs media owners
Targeting options
Creative options
Mobile ad features
Ad reporting and analytics
Mobile advertising: conclusions
14 Augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR)
Augmented reality in perspective
Adoption levels
Beyond visual AR
Virtual reality in perspective
Virtual reality and mobile
Virtual reality and 360 images
Virtual reality innovation
Augmented and virtual reality: conclusions
15 Quick response (QR) codes
QR codes in perspective
Practical applications
QR code adoption
The most important thing to understand about QR codes
Making your QR code beautiful (well, less ugly anyway)
Practical guide to using QR codes in the real world
QR codes: conclusions
16 Location-based devices and beacons

Location-based services
Location check-ins
Integrated data
The opportunity of beacons
Beacon adoption: conclusions
17 Near field communication (NFC) and mobile payments
Near field communication
Mobile payments
18 Instant messenger (IM) apps and short messaging service (SMS)
IM vs SMS in perspective
SMS is personal
Types of SMS communications
SMS app links
IM bots and live chat
IM and SMS: conclusions
19 Mobile analytics
The marvels of Google Analytics
Setting up Analytics
Core reports
Multi-Channel Funnels
Tracking code
PART THREE Mobile marketing checklists
20 Introduction
21 Checklists
Mobile marketing strategy
Mobile site development
Building your app
Social media and mobile
Mobile search
22 Conclusions


List of figures
FIGURE 2.1 The sales funnel
FIGURE 2.2 Avinash Kaushik’s See, Think, Do, Care framework
FIGURE 3.1 The DynaTAC 8000x: a snip at $3,995 in 1983
FIGURE 3.2 Smartphone adoption as a percentage of population
FIGURE 3.3 Smartphone penetration top countries
FIGURE 3.4 Consumer Barometer tool
FIGURE 3.5 Global digital statistics
FIGURE 4.1 Achieving a single-customer view
FIGURE 6.1 Microsoft HoloLens: augmented reality wearable technology
FIGURE 8.1 Effective responsive sites
FIGURE 8.2 WordPress software
FIGURE 8.3 Website built in WordPress using downloadable responsive theme
FIGURE 8.4 Website built in WordPress on an iPhone
FIGURE 8.5 Mobile design and development: key elements of user-centred approach
FIGURE 8.6 Example wireframe in Balsamiq Mockups
FIGURE 9.1 Using an ESP to preview e-mail display on various e-mail clients
FIGURE 9.2 Using Google URL builder to generate tracking code for an e-mail
FIGURE 9.3 Considering each step in the user journey and going beyond a last-click
FIGURE 9.4 Previewing your e-mail’s appearance on a wide range of clients and
devices using
FIGURE 9.5 The easy-to-use interface for sending A/B split-test campaigns using
FIGURE 11.1 Google Trends: search for the word ‘iPhone’
FIGURE 11.2 Google Trends: word comparison
FIGURE 11.3 Analysis of a Twitter account using Klear
FIGURE 11.4 Klout: social media influence scoring platform
FIGURE 11.5 Influential Twitter users on the topic of starting a business
FIGURE 11.6 Facebook: the impact on audience size of boosting a post
FIGURE 12.1 Google’s Mobile-Friendly test
FIGURE 12.2 Mobile search: results based on location term
FIGURE 12.3 Mobile search: results based on user location

FIGURE 12.4
FIGURE 12.10
FIGURE 12.11

Selecting mobile trends in the Keyword Planner
Keyword variations and volumes of searches on mobile devices
Google Trends: comparing search terms
Search engine optimization: key elements of the page
Page title: main line of the Google search result
Open Site Explorer from
Mobile paid search in Google
Google AdWords: adjusting bids according to device
IAB Mobile Rising Stars ad units
The Marriot Blippar beermat
‘Blipped’ beermat launching interactive experience
The Oculus Rift (PC-based) and Gear VR (mobile phone-based)
The Google Cardboard VR headset
QR code for Mobile Marketing
QR code with embedded image and gradient of colour
QR code with image merged into the code
An Estimote beacon in a retail environment
Business cards with embedded NFC chips (MOO)
NFC-enabled print ad in Wired magazine
Bank of America: SMS for easy app download
Facebook Messenger bots
Devices: volume of mobile visitors and devices used
Visitor Flow report: how mobile users travel through your site
Advanced Segments report: mobile vs other site traffic
Acquisition + Search Console: search term analysis
Acquisition + Advanced Segments: social media traffic analysis
Goal Report + Advanced Segments: completed mobile vs desktop
Multi-Channel Funnels: understanding the user journey

It’s clear that mobile devices are having a profound impact not only on how we
communicate on a daily basis, but also on how we interact and engage with individuals
and organizations of all types.
At the Chartered Institute of Marketing (CIM) we see time and time again that
practitioners, and those studying business of any type (whether they consider themselves
marketers or not), need a better understanding of the digital landscape. We also see that
landscape changing incredibly quickly and that mobile is playing a major part in this.
In this fast-changing environment, knowledge of both the strategic impact and the
tactical issues around mobile marketing will become increasingly important,
particularly as this naturally overlaps into areas such as social media.
Daniel has worked extensively with CIM, helping our members and customers to
navigate their way through this exciting and fast-moving environment. He is a respected
authority on all things digital and as such is the ideal guide for your mobile marketing
Chris Daly, Chief Executive, CIM

There are many people who have encouraged and assisted me in writing this book and I
have named a few of them here.
Firstly, to the small and perfectly formed Target Internet team. Very special thanks to
Susana, our incredible commercial director, without whom we wouldn’t have the
successful business we have today (she is also a dab hand at back-office admin!).
Thanks to Ciaran for motivating and cajoling me to keep things on track generally, and
for letting me steal his ideas (particularly on the future of mobile in the transport
industry. I’m not so grateful for his obsession with QR codes!). Thank you to Marie for
her tireless efforts in making my ramblings into professional-looking content every
month. Many thanks to Hemangi for her incredible hard work and expertise in building
our technical assets. Thank you to Pete, our newest team member, for making me realize
I need to up my game in writing and for constantly giving us a fresh and engaging tone.
Another huge thank you to the very inspirational and talented Jonathan Macdonald for
making the introduction that led to this book (and its second edition!). The free wine is
on me next time we spend 12 hours in an airport lounge.
And finally, a massive thank you to all of you who read this book, visit Target
Internet, listen to the Digital Marketing podcast, follow me on Twitter and very kindly
give me an audience with whom to engage and share my ideas.

This book is dedicated to my ever patient, beautiful and
straight-talking wife Susana, without whom it would still
be on a to-do list somewhere.
This is also a great opportunity to get my kids’ names in
print, so they can show all their friends and I can score
many, many ‘awesome dad’ points. I love you both
dearly, Teresa and Charlie.

Mobile is not a channel like social media, outdoor advertising or search; it is something
that impacts all of the other marketing channels, both online and offline. It is a
fundamental shift in human behaviour that we need to understand, and we need to adjust
how we operate accordingly. We can’t separate ‘mobile marketing’ from other marketing
activity, and therefore the very term itself can be misleading. Mobile Marketing is dead!
This book aims to be a practical guide to understanding and using mobile marketing
for organizations of different types and sizes around the globe. However, in order to do
this, we need to start by defining what we really mean by mobile marketing.

Looking in the wrong direction
The most common mistake made in mobile marketing is to focus on the device. When we
focus on the smartphone or tablet that someone is using we instantly start to look in the
wrong direction. I’ll explain why.
How big does a phone need to get before it becomes a tablet? What about if my
laptop has a touchscreen? Does it then become a tablet? What if my tablet has a
keyboard? Is it still a mobile device? The reality is that the merging and extremely fast
evolution of mobile devices is already out of date by the time we have adjusted to it.
What we need is a strategy and an implementation plan that allow us to make
maximum use of the technology available without getting bogged down with the devices
we are planning for (although we will address device planning later in this book).

Focus on the user journey
Mobile marketing is actually all about understanding the user journey. Understanding
what individuals (even when acting as part of larger organizations) want to achieve.
This could be anything from educating themselves to booking a cinema ticket, but
whatever the objective, we need to understand how the technologies that make up
mobile marketing can be used to help achieve the goals of an individual.

The human element

Our mobile devices are by nature very personal to us. We carry them with us, use them
when we are moving from place to place and they help make our lives easier (or at least
should do!) If I try and broadcast generic marketing messages through your mobile
device they are even less likely to work than through other channels. Generally
speaking, when you are on a mobile device you have less time, you are focused on a
specific goal and you are ‘in the moment’. And this is exactly why mobile marketing is
so essential and requires us to think about marketing in a very different way.

As you work through this book you’ll learn about the practicalities of building apps,
mobile websites and technologies like near field communication (NFC). All we are
really doing, though, is arming ourselves with tools for a world where the shift in
marketing has been profound.
We’ll explore how media consumption has radically changed, how people are using
multiple screens at once (think how often you watch TV without a smartphone to hand)
and how the idea of a mobile device starts to become obsolete when you are wearing
those devices (we’ll explore this later too).
So what can we do in such a fast-changing and disruptive market? We focus on the

Back to basics
I’ve worked with many of the world’s largest and fastest-changing organizations over
the last 18 years, advising them how they can best use digital technologies to achieve
their business objectives. No matter what the topic, be it social media search
optimization or e-mail marketing (both of which are part of mobile marketing), I always
come back to basics. Set your objectives, understand your target audience, select the
appropriate tools, channels and content and then deploy, test and learn. Mobile
marketing is absolutely essential and mobile marketing is dead.

How to get the most out of this book
The book is split into three key parts.

Part One Mobile marketing in perspective
This part will give you an understanding of who the mobile consumer is, a core view of the

technology involved and how it impacts you, and finally, how to set objectives for your
mobile marketing.

Part Two Tactical toolkit
This part explores the core technologies, techniques and tools involved in mobile marketing.
Here we explore things like mobile payments, mobile sites, apps and NFC. Jump straight to
this section if you need some hands-on tips and techniques.

Part Three Checklists
This short and final section will help you set a mobile strategy and make sure you aren’t
missing anything. It comprises some practical checklists and a step-by-step planning tool for
creating your mobile strategy.
You can also get all the latest on mobile marketing by visiting

Mobile marketing in perspective

It’s very easy to start thinking about mobile marketing from the perspective of the tactics
we are planning to implement: that great idea for an app, a beautifully designed
responsive website or a clever idea for using mobile payments. The reality, just with
any digital marketing activity, is that it’s generally a very good idea to take a step back
and fully understand what we are trying to achieve and the environment we are working
Part One therefore is all about understanding the broader environment we are working
in. It will help you understand who the mobile consumer is, get a core view of the
technology involved and finally show you how to set objectives for your mobile
This core knowledge will help you inform your strategy before you start to embark on
the tactical journey of implementing your mobile marketing campaigns (which is
covered in detail in Part Two).
Although this section explores some of the latest statistics and developments in
mobile marketing, we also acknowledge that this is a fast-paced environment with
constant change. For that reason, we have pointed out numerous resources along the
way, as well as compiling the best of these on our website.
This first part of the book is also here to stop you wasting time and money by
highlighting some of the key risks of mobile marketing. It is very easy to be seduced by
new technologies that offer fantastic creative opportunities. However, without the
grounding of how this fits into an overall strategy and a clear measurement framework to
tie things back to our objectives, there is huge potential to be very busy without being
productive in any way.
I still see, on an almost daily basis, Facebook pages for the sake of Facebook pages
and mobile apps for the sake of apps. This generally starts in one of two ways. Either
somebody senior says, ‘Why don’t we have an app? Go make an app!’ or somebody
comes up with a half-baked idea that starts its life without any proper planning. The end
results are generally disappointing and costly. This then gives the impression that mobile
is costly, complicated and ineffective. In reality, any marketing done in this way is
generally a disaster.
This section, however, is not about looking at the negative. It’s all about embracing

the huge and exciting potential that mobile marketing offers and doing so in a riskmitigated way. This will help you make the most of your resources and should save you
a lot of stress.

What Part One will help you do
Make sure you have a clear view of the environment you are working in.
Understand how mobile makes up part of the user journey.
Set your objectives and understand the mobile technologies that might help you achieve
these objectives.
Highlight some of the key risks you will face along your mobile marketing journey.
Understand how to cope with a fast-changing environment and see how our website can
help you stay up to date and on top of the latest developments:

Understanding the user journey
We can now interact with businesses from pretty much anywhere we have some form of
internet connection. On the bus, travelling by train or whilst walking along. This image
of mobile marketing being all about mobility in its purest sense is often used, but defies
the reality of how we are actually using mobile devices in the majority of cases. Most
mobile usage is done at home, in the office or somewhere else stationary, and most of it
is about ‘me’ time (Gevelber, 2016).
So if it’s actually not about using your phone when moving, why is’s
‘Hotel Booked in Freefall’ video (TheJTHolmes, 2011) so successful (attracting over 1
million views in YouTube at time of publishing) and often quoted as a great example, as
it is in Google’s excellent Mobile Playbook.
Well, first of all it’s a fun and engaging concept that grabs your attention. Somebody
trying to book a hotel room on a phone whilst jumping out of a plane is a fairly extreme
idea! However, it achieves its objectives as a piece of marketing because it
demonstrates and reinforces a key value proposition. That is the idea that
makes it quick and easy to book hotels.
This alignment with value proposition and what the consumer actually wants is
essential, and although it sounds obvious, is more often than not completely missed in
mobile marketing campaigns. The reason that this basic concept of alignment with
consumer requirements is missed is that we (or the partners and agencies we work with)
are blinded by the technology and creative options.

The consumer and business-to-business
Very often when we talk about ‘mobile consumers’ we immediately start to think about
somebody buying a product in a shop or a website. However, I think we should look at the
consumer in a broader context, and part of this will include anyone that is engaging with our
mobile marketing in some way.
For this reason, when we talk about the mobile consumer, we will also be considering
those making business-to-business (B2B) purchasing decisions. Clearly the requirements of
somebody checking the reviews of a movie are very different to those of somebody checking
information on the supplier they are about to meet, but they do hold the same principle in

common. That is, that we need to understand what this consumer is trying to achieve and in
what context.
In many cases mobile marketing is dismissed in the B2B environment as something that is
more suited to business-to-consumer (B2C) marketing, but I would argue that the whole
point of mobile is its personal nature and the need to understand the target audience’s
objectives and context.
Business users mix their personal and business time on mobile devices, and with social
platforms like LinkedIn it is possible for this line to become even further blurred. For
example, I may be relaxing and staying up to date with my social contacts and I may be
looking at the LinkedIn app as part of this.
We clearly need to look at B2B and B2C marketing differently, but many of the same core
principles apply. At the core of this is understanding our target users’ needs and context, then
using mobile marketing to service these needs and making sure they align with our business

Technology for the sake of technology
Just because we can build an app doesn’t mean we should (in fact you really need to
think about mobile sites before apps in the majority of cases, but more on that later).
Using technology inappropriately without setting objectives or having a clear business
case is nothing new.
From my experience, the majority of business Twitter and Facebook accounts are set
up with little or no idea whatsoever of why they’re being created. It happens because
somebody senior has decided it’s a good idea without understanding it, somebody junior
did it without asking anyone, or someone in the business has seen that competitors are
doing it so feel an opportunity is being missed. It doesn’t mean it’s necessarily the
wrong channel or a bad idea, but anything done without objectives or a business case is
generally doomed to failure.
This lack of strategy isn’t isolated to mobile marketing. One of my favourite examples
demonstrates how this applies to digital marketing generally. Dave Chaffey is a wellrespected digital marketing author (as well as being an excellent lecturer, public speaker
and someone whose opinion I respect). He runs a website called that
provides digital marketing advice and stimulates conversation on the topic. As such he
regularly asks his audience how many of them are carrying out any form of digital
marketing and how many of them have a strategy behind this activity. Every time this
questionnaire is run, the results come back the same. Nearly 70 per cent of those asked
are carrying out digital marketing activities with no strategy. Although this is only a
small sample survey, it does identify a key trend that I can back up from my many years
of working with organizations to improve their digital marketing efforts.

Now, to be fair, this 70 per cent might be doing the right things, for the right reason,
measuring effectively and achieving their business objectives. Although I’m pretty sure
that’s not the case for all of them. Even if it were, they probably wouldn’t know it, as
they have no strategy against which to measure their success.

User journey and context
Understanding the user journey is going to be essential to the success of our mobile
marketing, so let’s try and understand this in a bit more detail. We need to understand
what our target audience might want to achieve, understand their path to doing this, see
how mobile fits in, and then provide the right experiences and content to achieve these
Some of this will be the ‘discovery phase’ (also referred to as push, stimulus and in a
dozen other ways!) where we are trying to build awareness, educate and stimulate some
form of further action.
Some will be in the ‘engagement phase’. These are activities that are driving
engagement, experiences and moving toward the users’ final objectives.
The different techniques and technologies are shown in Table 2.1, and we’ll explore
them in more detail in Part Two of this book. However, we first need to identify how
they fit together.
The line between discovery and engagement becomes increasingly blurred as we
move into location-based interaction (engaging with a brand when in-store, for
example), but these phases can start to lay a foundation for us when thinking about where
mobile fits into the user journey. However, this is currently a fairly one-dimensional
model that only really talks about mobile marketing techniques, whilst acknowledging
that things like offline marketing may exist.

TABLE 2.1 Discovery and engagement phases in mobile marketing
Discovery Phase

Engagement Phase

Mobile e-mail

Mobile sites

Mobile display ads


Mobile paid search

Mobile-optimized social

Mobile organic search

Mobile payment and couponing

Offline stimulus (QR codes, etc)

Location-based interaction (NFC etc)

Push notifications

Mobile and multi-channel marketing
The reality of all marketing is that there generally isn’t one thing that makes you buy a
product or choose a supplier. Generally, there is a huge range of factors that make you
prefer one brand over another, choose a supplier or buy a particular detergent.
Marketing is all about understanding this process.
As marketers we can model, measure and use all sorts of tools to try and understand
this buying process, and this is where digital marketing has its greatest strengths. We
have access to more data and more capability to measure the user journey than ever
before. However, the missing piece in this measurement puzzle has been the interaction
between online and offline marketing. We’ll still face some challenges with this, but
quite often mobile can act as the bridge between offline and online.
Mobile marketing will generally be part of the user journey and many other channels
may be involved, some digital and some not. The journey is very unlikely to be a linear
one, and many channels and types of content may be revisited several times, in no
particular order, and we may not have any visibility on many of the steps in the journey.

A multi-screen journey
As well as needing to consider a wide range of channels being involved in any user
journey, we need to realize that there will also be a number of different ‘screens’
involved, and very often we will be using multiple screens at the same time. For
example, at key TV viewing times, around 80 per cent us will be watching TV whilst
using another device (Young, 2016).
To consider the full range of screens we need to take into account smartphones, tablet
devices, desktops/laptops, wearables (such as smart watches), TV and, with the advent
of driverless cars and the increase in driver services such as Uber, in-car screens. This
broadens our view of mobile to such an extent that the only way to address it effectively
is to focus on the user journey.

The growth of in-vehicle screens
With the advent of widely adopted driving services such as Uber and Didi (the largest carhailing app in China), we are increasingly using our mobile devices whilst travelling by road.
However, this is only the tip of the iceberg in regard to in-vehicle screen viewing when we
consider the imminent growth of driverless cars.
If you are on your 45-minute commute in a driverless car, your attention clearly won’t be
needed for driving. So what will you be doing with your time? You’ll be looking at a screen,

and I’m sure initially this will be on your own mobile devices. However, consider the fact
that the entire car interior is currently geared toward the driver and driving position. As this
becomes unnecessary, the entire car interior can be focused on entertainment and interaction.
Why use your tiny mobile device screen, when the entire car interior could be dedicated to
having interactive screens? It’s early days at the time of writing for driverless cars, but
already companies like Ford are patenting ideas for radical new car interiors focused on
bringing more screens into the vehicle (McMahon, 2016).

User journey examples
Let’s take a look at two real-world user journeys all the way through to purchase and
consider how different channels are working together.

B2B example
I need a new hosting company for my business website. I’m responsible for the
website’s reliability and I have had some bad experiences previously, ending in my
website being down and me being frustrated and embarrassed. This buying decision is
primarily motivated by risk mitigation, but I also need to make sure that my website will
be fast and any provider will give me the opportunity to expand and improve my web
offering, so I need flexibility and performance. This is not a decision I will make
without being well informed and the user journey is made up of multiple steps,
including, but not limited to:
doing numerous searches for suppliers;
reading online reviews of these suppliers;
signing up for newsletters from each of these suppliers;
asking opinions from my social network on LinkedIn and Twitter of their experiences;
completing several diagnostic tools to understand what kind of hosting I actually
reading websites that talk about the technology behind hosting to educate myself about
the technology;
signing up for newsletters from the sites that helped me educate myself;
talking to colleagues and trusted partners at unrelated events and meetings;
getting recommendations for suppliers I had never heard of and making a note on my
On first inspection, the only step in this journey that specifically used a mobile device
was making a note of recommended suppliers. The reality, however, is that a great deal

of this research was actually done when I was in a hotel, travelling by train or on a
plane. I also use multiple devices, including a laptop, a tablet and a smartphone.
So let’s map out what’s important to note in this user journey. Firstly, that my decision
is being based on risk mitigation and finding the right fit to my needs. I also need to
educate myself on the topic (which is very common in B2B buying decisions).
We also need to note the practicalities of this journey. It was done almost entirely
online, except where face-to-face word of mouth was involved. However, I only knew
to search for several suppliers because I was already aware of them due to some other
offline interaction at previous trade shows. Also, much of the time I was reading and
educating myself I was actually offline as I had no internet access (on a plane or on a
train with poor connectivity).
So what does this tell us about our mobile marketing planning? Well, our value
proposition needs to align closely with the ideas of risk mitigation, trust and education.
So a clear value proposition aligned to user needs at the heart of any strategy would be
essential for any potential supplier.
The suppliers needed to provide more content than just telling me how great their
solution was. I needed education to build trust. This is a classic example of the need for
content marketing, which we’ll discuss shortly.
I relied on my social network and online reviews heavily to influence my decision.
An effective social media approach was also clearly going to be essential for any
potential supplier, and how I experienced this on different devices would need to be
As well as needing these different types of content I needed to be able to consume
them in ways that suited me. And what suited me varied by time and place. I needed
content that would work on all of my devices, and that would rely on an internet
connection. We’ll discuss all of these technology practicalities in Part Two of this book.

B2C example
I’m looking at what I can do with my airline loyalty points, how the process works and
where I might like to go. This process is as much about enjoying the process of looking
at the destinations I could visit as it is about making any sort of practical plan.
As I work through this process I will make a number of steps that may include, but are
not limited to:
trying to log into my account online to see how many points I have;
understanding the process of using the points to book flights;
seeing how far the flights can take me and a list of available destinations, without
having a destination in mind;

understanding when flights are available;
looking at the destinations, exploring holiday options and looking at the suitability for
different types of travel (romantic, family, etc);
working out the most cost-effective way of using my points considering airport taxes
and other charges.
On initial inspection, none of these steps need be mobile-only steps. But also bear in
mind I said this was as much about fun as it was about practical planning, so this was
most likely to be done when I am relaxing or in between other activities. Therefore, a
lot, if not all, of this research would be done on a mobile device from my sofa, office
chair or when travelling. Around 30 per cent of all travel bookings are now carried out
on mobile devices and at least 60 per cent of travel site traffic is on a mobile device
(Criteo, 2016).
I give this example because, not only is it real, but with my particular airline of
choice it turned out to be nearly impossible. The key point here is that it was essential to
understand the motivation of my user journey, and that was to explore, to learn and to
‘mock plan’. Let’s take a look at some of the issues that got in the way of this process
meeting my requirements:
main site redirecting to mobile site with limited functionality;
no ability to go back to main website easily;
main website not designed to work on multiple devices;
search options not suited to my user journey, ie being unsure of my final destination;
no easy way to browse availability without browsing through page after page of
no further information or recommended sites on potential destinations;
unclear guidance on travel options when travelling with family (I will not be popular
if I’m sitting in business class sipping cocktails and waving to my family back in
These aren’t just technology issues. They had an app after all. They just hadn’t thought
through the different user journeys, and the process had been mapped to work with their
booking system rather than the user’s needs.
If this journey was embraced, any airline or holiday company I was engaging with
would have the opportunity to engage me, reinforce their brand and give me inspiration
for future travel. Even if it didn’t lead to me booking there and then, by making the
process easier they could improve my brand loyalty and potential word-of-mouth
recommendations. Instead I’m writing in a book about how frustrating it was!

Local intent
I have so far left out mentioning the consumer with local intent. Not because it isn’t
important, but because it can be a distraction from the broader picture. If your business
has any sort of location-based offering it can be immensely powerful, but this goes back
to our concept of understanding the target audience’s objectives and context, and then
using mobile technologies to deliver the most appropriate solution.
According to Google, 94 per cent of smartphone users have carried out a local search
(Think with Google, 2016). If I am looking for a local hotel, my nearest bus stop, a
nearby provider of power supplies for my brand of laptop and so on, this type of search
is transformational to both the mobile user and potentially any business involved.
We’ll explore mobile and retail, where local mobile use can have a huge impact, in
the next chapter on integration. We’ll also look at mobile search in depth in Part Two
and how this fits in with the user journey.

Content marketing
Content marketing is often talked about when looking at an overarching web strategy, but
it’s also well worth considering when you are thinking about your mobile marketing.
Fundamentally, content marketing is about providing useful and engaging content that is
suited to the user’s journey. Generally, content marketing is about providing value
beyond your direct product offering. If we go back to my example of selecting a hosting
provider, a useful focus for content marketing would have been educating the user about
web technologies.
In Table 2.2 we consider a few more examples.

TABLE 2.2 Ideas for content marketing themes
Type of company

Focus of content marketing

SEO agency

Digital marketing advice

White water rafting (aimed at teams)

Human resources

Alcoholic drink brand

Cocktail-making and recipes


Family money-savings tips


Training tips

Business service

Thought leadership articles

Content marketing, value proposition and mobile

Content marketing allows us to bolster our value proposition through digital-delivered
content or services. Mobile specifically allows us to deliver content in a form that is
most useful to the audience at the right time. More importantly, we have the opportunity
to use mobile technologies creatively to deliver this value proposition via interaction.
Let’s take our ideas for content marketing themes, and in Table 2.3 look at how they
could be applied in an interactive way. All of these very simple ideas could be
developed into something far more robust that would interactively reinforce a brand
value proposition.

TABLE 2.3 Content marketing themes and mobile interaction ideas
Focus of content marketing

Interactive idea

Digital marketing advice

Campaign reporting tool

Human resources

Interactive HR guide with scenario planning

Cocktail-making and recipes

Interactive portable recipe book

Family money-savings tips

Coupons and location-based savings

Training tips

Training objective progress tracker

Thought leadership articles

Podcast/audio for learning on the move

It’s important to understand how this can be applied to organizations with completely
different products or service offerings. A B2B service is generally a high-involvement
purchase. That is, you think carefully and do some research before buying. Buying
confectionery on the other hand is generally a very low-involvement purchase. You’re
unlikely to go online and compare chocolate bars before buying them! However, using
digital-delivered services and content marketing can help bolster value proposition and
brand positioning in both cases.

The stages of the user journey
Any online journey goes through a number of different stages, starting with a lack of
awareness about a topic all the way through to direct commercial intent and postpurchase loyalty (or lack of!). There is a wide range of different models that can help us
visualize this, but I think considering a traditional sales funnel is a great place to start.

Traditional sales funnel
A traditional sales funnel sees our target audience move from no commercial intent and
general browsing or having a vague notion on a topic, through to having an active

interest, on to the actual point of purchase and finally into the potential loyalty stage
(Figure 2.1).
What the diagram also shows is that this journey is not necessarily a linear one. I may
spend an extended period of time browsing and revisiting content before I ever move on
to the active interest phase. Also, the duration of the active interest phase will vary
according to product/service offering and target audience. Once into the loyalty stage I
may also find content intended for the browsing stage useful again as well.

FIGURE 2.1 The sales funnel
With each stage of the journey I need to understand my target audience’s objectives and
motivations and work out what content and interactions will drive them to the next stage.
We’ll look at how we can map content against this funnel in a moment.

See, Think, Do, Care
Avinash Kaushik is a best-selling author, renowned analytics expert and a digital
marketing evangelist for Google. Through his excellent blog, Occam’s Razor, he has
described his very useful See, Think, Do, Care framework (Kaushik, 2016). You can
read more about it at, but it is a simple-to-understand
yet very flexible and effective model for planning content.
In reality our funnel model and the See, Think, Do, Care framework are actually
telling us the same thing. We need different content in different contexts for each stage of
the user journey.

FIGURE 2.2 Avinash Kaushik’s See, Think, Do, Care framework

Content mapping
So let’s take a couple of examples and look at how we can map content against each of
the stages of both user journey models. We’ll take two very different organizations:, a B2B organization that sells access to online digital marketing
courses; and, a global online grocery retailer. Table 2.4 shows the four
stages of the user journey (from both user journey models) and then shows examples of
content at each stage for a particular audience.
The see/browse content is of broad general interest to our target audience. The
think/active interest content is actively related to what the organizations sell. The
do/point of purchase content is their key product offering. You’ll notice the content at the
see/browse stage can also be used at the care/loyalty stage as well.

TABLE 2.4 User journey models and content mapping

See (Browse)

7 top Facebook tips for social success

25 things to do with your children
on a rainy day

Think (Active

Complete guide to bridging the digital
marketing skills gap

20 healthy ideas for children’s
lunch boxes

Do (Point of

Online digital marketing courses

Online grocery shopping

Care (Loyalty)

7 top Facebook tips for social success

25 things to do with your children
on a rainy day

Value proposition and user journey

Once we map out and understand our different target audiences, their different
motivations and the user journeys they could potentially take, we start to have the basis
of a digital plan. Once we align this to our business objectives and can measure for
success and improvement we have the makings of a digital strategy.
The third and final section of this book will give you a series of checklists to help
bring together your digital strategy.

CASE STUDY Heineken Share the Sofa

Beverages brand

Tribal DDB


Marketing objectives
Maximize impact of Champions League sponsorship
Drive brand awareness and engagement
Improve sales

Their challenge
The key insight at the heart of the campaign is that 76 per cent of people watching the
Champions League (a European football tournament) were watching it alone at home,
and most of them were multi-screening with tablets and smartphones whilst watching the

Their solution
The Share the Sofa campaign created hundreds of pieces of video content that were
broadcast via Twitter live as the football matches were played. These video clips were

made by football celebrities who shared their opinions and insights on the match in a
light-hearted and highly visual way from their own sofa.

Their results
The campaign generated over 1.2 billion content views and gave Heineken a 79 per cent
share of all conversations in relation to the Champions League sponsorship online. It
also led to a 7 per cent increase in purchase intent in the target audience.

What’s good about it
It’s a great campaign because it takes a clear audience insight on multi-screening and
uses this to develop a core creative concept. The campaign was picked up by numerous
media outlets and discussed globally, adding to its reach and impact.

Further insights
The campaign used some innovative techniques to achieve live video-streaming because
it was created before Periscope (a Twitter app to create live video-streams) was
created. Because of Periscope, and other social live video-streaming, such as Facebook
Live, these kinds of campaigns are much easier to create now from a technical point of
View the case study video:

Technology change and adoption
As I have already said, mobile marketing is more about the user journey than it is about
the technology. However, we need to understand the adoption of the technology to really
understand our target audiences and how we can best reach them. In this chapter we will
try and explore and benchmark where the technology currently fits into this puzzle and
start to understand the differences between distinct markets and segments of our

Forty years of radical change
At the time of writing it is 43 years since Martin Cooper, a senior engineer at Motorola,
made the first mobile phone call on 3 April 1973. Within 10 years they had launched the
DynaTAC 8000x (Figure 3.1), their first commercial handheld mobile phone.

FIGURE 3.1 The DynaTAC 8000x: a snip at $3,995 in 1983
The change in the world of technology and how this has impacted the world of mobile
has been radical to say the least. Bear in mind there was no internet when this phone
was first in use and that SMS (short messaging service or ‘text messaging’ as it is often
referred to) didn’t even get a technical definition until some years later.
The 2016 GSMA Mobile Economy report found that there were just under 5 billion
unique mobile phone subscriptions worldwide. The global population at the time was
just over 7 billion (GSM Association, 2016).

Integrated devices
Our expectations of mobile devices are radically different now and smartphones and
tablets offer us fully integrated computing and telecommunications devices. This
integration is what has led to the radical change in usage that we need to understand in
order to make the best use of mobile marketing.
When you consider the level of internet searches done on mobile devices, social
media interactions and e-mail reading and writing (all of which we will explore
shortly), we quickly see that the device becomes less and less relevant, whilst what we
are doing with it becomes far more important.

Smartphone adoption
We could at this point start to look at dozens of charts and facts that wow us with the
high level of adoption of mobile phone and smartphone technology (and forgive me, I

will do this a little!). In reality, though, smartphone adoption, as a percentage of
population, is probably lower than most of us expect (Figure 3.2).
So, if smartphone penetration is actually below 50 per cent, even in highly developed
markets like Asia (and even within Asia there are radical variations between regions)
why are we getting so excited? Does this mean that this is a minority audience? The
answer is actually no.
When you factor in some key demographic data like age, you start to realize that a
large percentage of the population is unlikely to own smartphones in the first place. By
this I mean young children. According to Index Mundi (who compile their data from the
CIA World Factbook no less!), in June 2016 around 26.2 per cent of the world
population was 0–14 years old. Many of this group are unlikely to own a smartphone.
However, we will explore this further later, as for example, my daughter was a highly
active smartphone user from 11 years old, and my son was using a tablet from the age of

FIGURE 3.2 Smartphone adoption as a percentage of population
SOURCE:, June 2016

Global variations
We also need to be careful to understand the global variations in smartphone adoption
and what is causing this (Figure 3.3).
Many of these variations in adoption rates are related to income (smartphones tend to
be more expensive than basic ‘feature phones’) and to geographical coverage offered by
the various mobile phone operators that offer data connections.
For example, back in 2013 the three major phone operators in China on average had
only 22 per cent 3G data penetration (Jones, 2013). However, by 2016 this figure was
expected to reach 80 per cent for 4G penetration (China Daily, June 2016)!

FIGURE 3.3 Smartphone penetration top countries
SOURCE: Pew Research Centre, 2016

Benchmarking marketing activity
Since adoption rates change so quickly and vary so widely by geography, we need

reliable sources of data for the regions we are targeting. The following tools offer a
range of free insights into mobile usage globally and are updated regularly.

Consumer Barometer
Although the Consumer Barometer is not purely a mobile marketing tool, it is excellent
for understanding how mobile makes up part of the overall user journey.
The tool highlights data from 39 countries and looks at how people use the internet to
research and buy products (see Figure 3.4). You can explore the data by browsing
around, or by building your own charts as with the Mobile Planet tool.

FIGURE 3.4 Consumer Barometer tool

FIGURE 3.5 Global digital statistics
SOURCE: Digital in 2016,

Digital in 2016 (We Are Social)
This excellent free report (see Figure 3.5) covers a huge range of statistics across
digital marketing and looks specifically at mobile adoption and usage across the world.
It is broken down into regional reports and is updated several times a year.
For a list of the latest mobile marketing tools and market insights visit:

Disruption and integration
We have so far examined the mobile consumer and some of the high-level technology
issues that have impacted the broad world of mobile marketing. What we haven’t done
is look in a little more detail at the profound and disruptive effect mobile is already
having on some businesses and markets.
Much of this change comes back to our understanding of the user journey, but really it
is about convenience, choice and transparency of information for the consumer.
My favourite statistic to demonstrate this is that 65 per cent of shoppers believe they
can find better deals via their mobile device (UPS, 2016). In the same report, it shows
that single-channel, retail store-only purchases have dropped by 20 per cent (that is,
shopping that doesn’t include any online element at all but just a visit to a store).

65 per cent of shoppers believe they can find better deals via their mobile device.

If we know that people aren’t buying because of price, and that they can easily find out
that lower prices are available elsewhere, we have a few simple choices. We can
compete on price (very difficult in retail), find something else to compete on (like
service, quality of experience, value added, etc), or get out of the business before it
fails. Painful news for many retailers but true none the less.
This fundamental shift in what retailers need to provide has been caused by the
convenience, choice and transparency that mobile, and more broadly, digital marketing
The attitude of many retailers is that if you need something urgently you will still
come into the store. This is also being disrupted by digital and smart business. I needed
to buy an audio cable for my computer. I knew that my best chance locally was a store
called Maplin who always stocked these kinds of products. Not only was the website
able to tell me if they had the correct cable in stock, in what stores and how many, they
also had smart delivery options. I could get it next day, but more importantly I could get
it delivered to my home within 90 minutes (using a smart service called Shutl). Bearing
in mind this was cheaper than paying for parking near the store, why would I go in-


The death of in-store retail
So does this mean that retail is dead? No, but it means it needs to change and adapt to an
environment that has radically changed. People will still go in-store, but for different
reasons. It may be for the excellent product advice, great experience, to get hands-on
with a product or as a leisure activity. The one thing you can be sure of, though, is that, if
you are competing on price, in-store retail is going to be increasingly challenging, unless
your store acts as part of a multi-channel approach.

Mobile: the saviour of retail
There is, however, an alternative view to this scenario. It still includes radical change,
but envisions mobile as the saviour of in-store retail. Let’s consider the concept that we
explored in Chapter 2, of using mobile technology to create experiences that bolster the
value proposition. There is no reason that mobile can’t bolster the value proposition that
it’s worth going in-store.
By utilizing the appropriate technology, be it apps, near field communication (NFC),
beacons or mobile-optimized websites (all of which we’ll explore in Part Two), we can
improve the in-store retail experience. It may just be that the store experience drives the
online sale, but if that is the case we need to understand the user journey to analyse this.
Mobile search can tell me that another online retailer is selling the same product I’m
looking at in-store cheaper online. However, it can also tell me that the store I’m in
offers better-quality customer service post-sale, a great returns policy and free in-store
product training. It may be that by buying in-store I get access to a loyalty programme, or
because I’ve signed up to their app/website I get priority treatment in-store.
For years, airlines and hotels have used loyalty programmes to attract repeat custom
from a market that may otherwise be price sensitive. Many of the same principles can be
applied to mobile and retail (and many other markets as well).

Convenience, choice and transparency
When we look at markets that have been disrupted by digital technology, the key is to
understand why this technology has changed the user experience and journey (or context
of the journey).
The media industry has been massively disrupted. Music, film and publishing have all
seen massive changes in the delivery of their product. Technology has created a more

convenient, flexible and instantaneous delivery channel than ordering a physical
product. While there will always be a demand for vinyl and print, the increased
convenience, choice and the transparency of pricing meant that the music and publishing
industries changed quickly and consumers moved more quickly than media companies.
The user experience had changed, massively for the better, and instead of embracing
this, the industry dragged its heels. This allowed online piracy to seem like a viable
alternative to many who would have paid online, given the option. Over 78 per cent of
people are now willing to pay for content online (Williams, 2016).

Business culture
This brings us to a highly important point: that of the culture within an organization. In a
fast-paced, rapidly changing environment, which digital and mobile will continue to be
for the foreseeable future, we need a culture that allows for change and flexibility. The
technology behind mobile marketing in itself is not too complex (or at least I hope you’ll
think so by the time you read Part Two of this book).
What is complex and generally difficult is change within organizations. Change
management has always been challenging, and what mobile marketing is causing is the
need for ongoing change. We need to build organizations and organizational cultures that
allow for rapid change. In my experience, the bigger the company, the harder this can be.

Single-customer view
One very practical aspect of this is the ability to understand our potential and existing
customers better. We have access to more data than ever before (we’ll explore this data
from mobile apps, advertising and websites in Part Two). As we collect more and more
data, though, we need to actually do something with it. It needs to be analysed and
actions taken.

Doing something with data
In my experience many companies are now collecting and reporting on web analytics data.
What they are not doing is analysing that data in any robust way and actioning that analysis.
There is quite often a monthly meeting where a couple of charts are shown, generally looking
at volume-based data like ‘number of site visits’. The chart is going up, everyone looks
happy and the meeting moves on.
This is a huge missed opportunity to learn and improve our digital marketing efforts; data
can give us great insight into how effective our mobile marketing actually is. Take a look at

Chapter 19 on mobile analytics to learn more about this.
The idea of a single-customer view is a very simple one, but can be extremely difficult to
achieve (particularly in larger organizations). The idea is that we connect up the data we get
from our mobile apps, websites, e-mail campaigns, social media and so on, build a complete
picture of our audience, and are thus able to become smarter marketers. In the best-case
scenario, we can connect all of this data to our customer relationship management (CRM)
systems and we have a unified and easy way to interrogate sources of information.

FIGURE 4.1 Achieving a single-customer view

The painful truth about integration
The challenge of integrating data sources is that it is generally a fairly complicated IT
project for most organizations. What we are really talking about is database, third-party
supplier and legacy systems integration, and what this means in reality is complexity.
However, it doesn’t need to be this way.
If I am a small business, it’s a different picture. I can get some form of web analytics
like Google Analytics, a cloud-based CRM system like SalesForce, and various systems
like MailChimp (an online e-mail service provider (ESP)). All of these will ‘plug in’ to
one another with not too much effort, and I have a relatively effective single-customer
Even in large organizations, by carefully selecting suppliers with a single-customer
view in mind, I can work toward this ideal scenario step by step. We may not be able to
integrate all data immediately, but this should be our long-term objective.

Next step: marketing automation
Marketing automation is something that is most often used in the B2B world, but it can
be applied to almost any industry, product or service to some extent. The core principle
is that if I have insight into your behaviour on a single or multiple channels, I can
automatically trigger relevant communications to you at the right time.
At its most simple level, imagine getting a push notification via an app some time
after you have made a purchase, asking for a review. This is a basic form of marketing
At its more advanced level I can start to ‘score’ your behaviour across multiple
platforms to try and identify particular types of customers, potential leads or customers
who are having problems finding the right information.
The B2B world tends to be well suited to marketing automation due to the long sales
times, involved buying process, multiple touch points before purchase and high value of
a sale. It can also be applied to consumer goods if tied in with digital services that are
there to bolster value proposition. For example, a sportswear manufacturer can track
your behaviour through an app that monitors your fitness goals and triggers relevant
communications at the right time.

Mobile as a change enabler
So we’ve looked at how mobile technology can be disruptive, but also how this can
actually be a change for good by improving the customer experience and can lead to
improved awareness, engagement and loyalty in the long term. By fully exploiting the
technology available in a way that embraces the increased convenience, choice and
transparency available to the mobile consumer, we can mitigate risk and maximize

CASE STUDY Digital Marketing podcast

Mobile disruption


Ciaran Rogers, host of the Digital Marketing podcast

Tapping into the brave new mobile frontier
Driverless cars will soon be a reality, with Google, Apple and a host of large car
manufacturers all joining the development race to have the first fully automated vehicle
available to buy by 2020 or sooner. But are society and the car manufacturing industry
really ready for them and the complete overhaul of the automotive industry they will
inevitably bring?
It won’t just be a revolution in how the car drives and navigates. That’s the obvious
change. It’s the interesting knock-on effects in what consumers will demand from their
cars once the car can drive itself that are fascinating. Think about it… If the car no
longer needs a driver, then one of the core requirements around which cars have been
designed for the last 110 years just changed. There won’t be a requirement for the driver
to see from all angles and to be in control at all times. There will be no requirement to
ensure the driver is free from distraction with their eyes upon the road. In fact, for

passengers (and everyone in these vehicles will be passengers) the interesting
revolution will occur around what those passengers choose to rest their eyes and ears
Time is a key factor here (or rather the lack of it). In the UK on average we typically
spend an estimated 10 hours a week driving (The Telegraph, 2016). That’s largely dead
time for the driver and little better for passengers in terms of what you can do
productively during transit. Based around current standard car designs, self-driving cars
would simply boost our opportunity to watch the world go by. Fine for short journeys in
picturesque surroundings – but seriously, for most car journeys? In-car entertainment is
going to be key, and that will require a great deal of creativity and imagination from car
manufacturers because in-car entertainment is likely to be the key feature that
differentiates the must-have driverless vehicle from all the other driverless drones in the
To date much of the tech on offer relies on use of mobile phones or tablets within the
car space, but given that the layout of a driverless vehicle can be what you want it to be,
larger shared screens that offer a more immersive experience and don’t have to be selfpowered are a real option.
Driverless cars have the potential to further extend what the mobile phone and
standard living-room tech offers consumers today. An extension of our real-world and
online self, but with a way better battery life and an amazingly immersive screen! With
other technological shifts currently taking place it is entirely possible that virtual reality
and augmented reality will all play their part in the active revisualization of the 10 hours
a week of clear space that will potentially open up for those who inhabit these
autonomous vehicles. And perhaps it is this frontier of untapped time that has all the tech
giants of the world scrabbling to enter into the automobile arena.
Tech giants such as Google and Apple fully understand how hard it is to reach large
audiences in a distraction-free environment. They have built complex ecosystems to
hook users into their channels and in doing so are reaping big rewards from ad and
product-related revenues. It makes you wonder if the car manufacturers really
appreciate the true value of the time frontier they are about to open up. What is the true
value of millions of people’s time and attention for seven–eight hours a week? Google
and Apple will be well aware. Volvo Ford and Toyota? I’m not so sure. It isn’t their
business… yet. They make cars, right? Well, they did, but in less than five years they
have the opportunity to be in command of one of the gateways to this untapped time
frontier if Apple and Google don’t steal the markets right from under their retro-styled
The car OS that powers the autonomous vehicle and its digital communications and
entertainment systems has the potential to net regular ongoing monthly income throughout
the life of the car, and the manufacturers are the gatekeepers to the whole market. Forget

Android vs Apple iOS updates; car OS updates and upgrades could soon become the
tech industry’s most talked-about summer and winter releases. Top that with your car’s
mobile internet connectivity and you have a whole new category of options and sales to
explore. Music-streaming, video-streaming, voice and video-calling solutions are all
there to be chosen, partnered with and packaged. It’s game-changing and mind-boggling
when you start to think about it, and as none of these cars are actually in production yet,
for the manufacturers who embrace the golden opportunities this new trend will open
there is still all to play for.

Devices, platforms and technology
Why it doesn’t matter
It’s easy to get bogged down in working out which mobile devices your app should
work on, what happens when a new phone version comes out and how effective your
responsive design website is (all of which we explore in detail in Part Two). All of this
stuff matters because of the final outcome of your mobile campaigns, but the reality is
that your mobile consumers don’t care. They just want to be able to get stuff done.
Responsive design means absolutely nothing to the majority of the people on this
planet (and maybe to you right now) and nor should it. I don’t really care how my house
was built as long as it keeps me dry, warm and secure. However, if my house doesn’t
work when it rains, or when the sun shines, I will have a serious problem with the
You need to worry about the technical aspects of your mobile strategy but your users
should not. They shouldn’t even notice it.

Mobile-compatible is not mobile-optimized
Just because your website works on mobile devices does not mean it is mobileoptimized. What I mean is that the site may load up fine on my phone, but if I have to
zoom in a dozen times to see anything clearly, this isn’t an optimal experience.
We’ll explore the ins and outs of building mobile sites in Part Two, but what we need
to consider now is what my target audience is likely to do, in what context and on what
devices. I can then start to make sure I have ticked the appropriate boxes to make their
experience as pain-free as possible.
Users are even more impatient on mobile devices than they are when using a desktop
or laptop (Work, 2011). They have come across so many poor mobile sites they just give
up very quickly. On the other hand, if we can create a seamless mobile experience we
stand a better chance of achieving our objectives and can actually build loyalty.

Technology challenges
So, you’re thinking something along the lines of ‘It’s all very good saying the technology
doesn’t matter, but I have to make choices and every time I make a change it costs
money.’ You’re 100 per cent right. The reality is this has always been the case in
marketing. We have to decide where to spend our money and how to prioritize our
budgets. The actual problem here is that the number of options is large and we don’t ask
the right questions.

Asking the right questions
Rather than asking whether you should build an Android, iOS or a Blackberry app (if
you have no idea what I’m talking about, take a look at the box opposite), we should
actually be asking what devices your target audience uses and which groups will it be
most cost effective to reach. Let’s frame this for a moment by forgetting about mobile. If
I decide I am targeting an audience but can only afford to target half of it, I need to
decide which half. I don’t do this based on an opinion; I should most likely do it on the
potential lifetime value of those customers, how much it will cost to target them and
other commercially focused criteria. The same applies to the different mobile platforms
and choices we make within our mobile strategies.

Platform wars
We’ll explore the technical side of mobile sites and apps in Part Two, but it’s worth
understanding the key players in the mobile operating system (OS) market. For the sake of
simplicity, we’ve just looked at the major smartphone and tablet platforms here. An OS is
just the software that a phone runs on and will impact its functionality. Most importantly for
us, apps built for one platform generally don’t work on another. We’ll look at these in more
detail later.

Google’s mobile OS. It’s open source, meaning it can theoretically be used and adapted by
anyone. It has also been adopted by the Open Handset Alliance (OHA) which includes big
handset manufacturers such as Samsung, Sony and HTC.

Apple’s OS, used on its iPhone, AppleTV and iPad products range. It is closely associated
with OS X used on Apple Mac computers.

Blackberry’s OS for all Blackberry devices.

Windows Mobile
Microsoft’s OS is used on their Lumia phones and is an iteration of their main PC operating
Beyond these platforms with the largest market share there are a whole lot more. Take a look
at Wikipedia to see just how many – and then don’t worry about them! (By the way, if you
are going to send me hate mail about telling people to ignore your particular mobile OS of
choice, you should probably get out more.)

Audience segmentation
Just because 40 per cent of the world uses a particular type of mobile OS, it doesn’t
mean that your target audience in your target market does. For this reason, you shouldn’t
rely on a lot of the generalized statistics that are published.
In reality, your target audience probably won’t necessarily align with the norms of
your overall market, and if you’re working across multiple regions it clearly gets more
complicated. What we really need to do is to collect some actual market insights as we
should with any other aspect of our marketing. You can do this by sample surveying your
target audience and actually asking the question.

Frictionless technology
What we are aiming for is to make the process of achieving the consumer’s goal as
simple and as transparent as possible. This idea of making the process as seamless as
possible is often referred to as ‘frictionless technology’ and it’s something we’ll
consider throughout Part Two. What we should always consider in our mobile marketing
is what is the objective of the user and how can that most effectively be achieved using
the right technology in the right place.

The future of mobile marketing
No book on mobile would be complete without considering the future of the technology
and industry. My main thought on this is that the future is a lot closer than we think!

Exponential development
One of the main drivers in the development of mobile marketing is the exponential
growth of computing power. As computing power increases and devices get physically
smaller, so what our mobile devices can do becomes more and more interesting.
Advances like better voice recognition, augmented reality (AR) and high-resolution
video displays have all relied on these increases in computing power to make them
available on mainstream mobile devices.

Enter Moore’s Law
Moore’s Law is an often quoted, but quite often not fully understood, observation in
regard to the exponential growth of computing power made back in 1965. Gordon E
Moore, co-founder of Intel, observed that the number of transistors on integrated circuits
doubled roughly every two years.
These changes have a direct impact on the speed at which computers can process
information, how much storage they can have in a given space, and are even connected
to things like the potential resolution of your digital camera.
This means that computing power grows at an exponential rate (more on that later).
Moore’s Law has proved to be exceptionally accurate; although he originally
predicted that it would hold true for around 10 years, it has now done so for nearly 50

The future of Moore’s Law
There has been much discussion about the fact that Moore’s Law cannot continue to hold
true forever. Practically speaking, you can only get so many transistors in a physical space

before you get to the limit of what is possible due to the limitations of physics.
However, if you look at Moore’s Law more broadly, and think in terms of computing
power, rather than transistors, there is a clear argument in favour of it holding true. What
generally happens, when one technology reaches the limits of what can be done with it, is
that some form of innovation is found to continue the progress of technology. Whether that’s
an entirely new material, manufacturing process or brand new technology, there are lots of
examples of innovation allowing Moore’s Law to continue when it looked to be reaching its

Exponential growth in perspective
One of the most important elements of this growth in computing power that is impacting
our mobile devices is its exponential rate. The human brain is very good at
understanding things that grow in a linear way, that is, something that grows at the same
rate on an ongoing basis, like counting from 1 to 100. What we are not so good at is
getting our heads around exponential growth. The best way to do this is to consider an
I first heard the following analogy from my friend, and expert digital strategist,
Jonathan Macdonald (look up some of his talks for some real inspiration on the future of
technology on his blog at I have seen a number of different
versions of the analogy online, but the key thing is to take note at the end of the story.

Filling a stadium with water, one drop at a time
Imagine a large stadium filling with water from a tap, one drip per minute, and imagine that
stadium to be watertight so that no water could escape. If the tap continued dripping water in
the same regular (linear) way, it would take many thousands of years to fill the stadium.
However, if that tap was dripping at an exponential rate, so that the number of drips
coming out of the tap doubled every minute, it’s a very different story. The first minute there
is one drop, the second minute there are two drops, the third minute four drops, the fourth
minute eight drops and so on. This is exponential growth in action.
Now imagine you are sitting on the seat at the very top of the stadium, with a view across
the entire area. The first drop from the exponential tap is dropped right in the middle of the
stadium field, at 12 noon. Remembering that this drop grows exponentially by doubling in
size every minute, how much time do you have to leave the stadium before the water
reaches your seat at the very top? Is it hours, days, weeks, months or years?
The answer is that you have exactly until 12.49 pm. It takes an exponential tap less than
50 minutes to fill a whole stadium with water. This is impressive but it gets more interesting.
At what time do you think the football stadium is still 93 per cent empty? The answer: at
12.45 pm. So if you sat and watched the water level growing, after 45 minutes all you would

see is the stadium field covered with water. Then, within four more minutes, the water would
fill the entire stadium. It would then take one more minute to fill an entire other stadium.
Exponential growth gets very big, very quickly.

Technology as an enabler
So let’s consider what this growth in technology means in practical terms. It means that
the devices we use will be able to do more and more things that previously seemed
impossible, and the rate of these technology developments will get faster and faster.
You only have to look at technology development over the few decades to see this in
practice. Thirty years or so ago, my iPhone would have looked like science fiction. (It
should be noted, however, I still don’t have a hover car.)
Recent innovations, such as real-time voice recognition language translation or
controlling the playback of video by just looking at your device (both innovations used
Samsung devices) will seem like common technology in the near future.
This means that the increase in capabilities of the devices we use will enable us to do
new things that we won’t be currently thinking about. It is also likely that the role a
mobile device currently takes in bridging the gap between the physical world and the
online world will continue and grow.

The near future
Microsoft’s HoloLens product (see Figure 6.1) is a glimpse of a very near future where
AR is commonplace. The product is already in existence and Microsoft, as well as
external developers, are building and refining what it will be able to do.
Although HoloLens takes fairly widely available technologies, combines them and
then wraps them in some clever software, it is causing a major reaction. This is in part
due to the clever use of technology, but more about the idea of wearing technology and
the idea of being ‘constantly connected’ and altering the reality around us.

FIGURE 6.1 Microsoft HoloLens: augmented reality wearable

Whenever I show HoloLens to a room full of students, delegates on a training course
or an audience at a larger presentation, the audience seems to be divided between two

points of view. One group of people is excited by the possibilities and impressed by the
technology. The other group finds the prospect and implications of being able to change
the reality around you disturbing.

Mobile changing society
This reaction is interesting for many reasons, but most of all it shows how mobile
technology is changing our day-by-day lives so fundamentally. Essentially, the
technology is moving more quickly than society is adapting to it and developing cultural
norms in how to deal with it.
I see a great example of this every time I talk at a conference. A few years ago, if I
was speaking on stage and somebody was looking down at their phone, it was a sign that
I didn’t have their attention. This may have been due to my talk being boring, them
having more important things to deal with, or the fact that they weren’t really interested
in the first place. Now when I speak at a conference most people are looking down at
their phones. It may be that I am getting increasingly boring, but based on the level of
tweets and social media posts, what they are actually doing is broadcasting snippets
from my talk in real time.

Double-edged sword
This change in behaviour has both good and bad sides. First, it’s great because it means
the members of the audience think there is value in what I am saying, enough value in
fact to share it with their own, wider audience. That means in turn that I have a wider
audience and will gain a larger social media following myself.
The downside is that it means the audience isn’t fully listening to what I’m saying and
their engagement with my content may be fairly superficial: looking for sound-bites of
content to publish.
This double-edged sword is a reflection of two issues in my opinion. First, we
haven’t developed a culture around these kinds of circumstances yet to have worked out
what is the best pattern of behaviour. Secondly, the technology is still getting in the way.
The ideal solution is not only a cultural one, where known behaviour is expected (for
example, you turn your mobile off or to silent in the cinema), but also one of better
technology. Technology that didn’t require me to look down at my mobile device and use
my hands to interact with it would mean that posting social media updates would be far
less interruptive.

Making things easier

Reducing how much the technology gets in the way of what I am trying to do and creating
a more seamless experience is what ‘frictionless’ technology is all about. We could
compare what technology we need to carry now to create, edit and publish a video.
Twenty years ago it would have meant a lot of heavy and very expensive equipment.
Now it means carrying the average smartphone.
The reaction HoloLens has created because of its wearable nature and the fact that it
overlays something onto our ‘real world’ will become more and more relevant in the
very near future. As mobile technology develops, the device itself becomes less and less
relevant, and the utility it offers has the opportunity to be more and more frictionless.
Some fairly obvious examples come to mind very easily if you just look at HoloLens.
Once the technology gets in the way less, how about not needing a headset at all? How
long will it be until we have augmented reality (AR) contact lenses?
How about taking the experience of watching somebody on stage giving a presentation
and trying to make the follow-up actions simpler? Using facial recognition, you could
automatically be shown the speaker’s online profile, previous work and other similar
experts. Another example scenario could be that you have gone for a walk in the woods
and see a snake. Your AR contact lenses could identify the snake, take a picture and post
it to your social networks to share your experience, and most importantly, tell you if it’s
dangerous or not.
The point is that it’s so easy to think of a thousand day-to-day experiences that could
be enhanced in some way by using these kinds of technologies. And all of these changes
in our everyday experiences will mean that mobile technology becomes more and more
personal. You only have to have lost your phone once to realize that we are increasingly
reliant and connected to the devices we use.

Privacy and the future of mobile
The overlap between mobile marketing, search and social media is creating circumstances
where questions of privacy are increasingly being discussed and challenged.
One of the key features demonstrated in an early Google Glass (Google’s original AR
glasses) promotion video (which actually showed a mockup of its expected functionality
rather what it could actually do at that time) was the wearer of the device asking where his
friend was, and his friend’s location being immediately shown on the augmented reality
display. This particular piece of functionality was always the one that seemed to draw the
biggest gasps from an audience because of the implications this could have on privacy. The
reality is that smartphone-based geographic location data has been around for some time, but
its usage is one of the many things about sharing so much data that is increasingly concerning
The key issue at play is that of value exchange and transparency. If I share data with you,

am I fully aware of that fact and do I know what you will do with that data? The other
question, which consumers are increasingly asking, is: what do you offer me in exchange?
A clear value exchange proposition is going to become increasingly important when we
attempt any form of mobile marketing. If I give you my data, what functionality, or other
value, will you give me in exchange? Then finally, and most importantly, do I trust you
enough to give you my data?

The distant future
Really this section should be entitled ‘The seems distant, but will actually probably be a
lot sooner than we think, future’. It’s not all that catchy, though, so we’ll stick with
‘distant future’. If we go back to the exponential growth analogy of filling a stadium with
water, we can see that the rate of change got pretty radical pretty quickly.
This could mean some very significant changes to the world around us. A very clear
point, in my opinion, is the idea that ‘mobile technology’ will become irrelevant (and
some would argue it already is). The integration of technology into everything we do,
and even into us as human beings, will mean that the funny little devices we carry
around now will in the future seem like the Dark Ages do to us now.
Consider that it’s a fairly logical train of thought, that we will all be constantly
connected to the internet (whatever that looks like then!), wherever we go. It’s also not
unreasonable to think that computing power and artificial intelligence will have
radically advanced and machines will be far more ‘intelligent’. (When you start to
consider that sentient life may not be limited to organic organisms, we start to get a little
too science fiction for the remit of this book, I’m afraid.) It’s also a fairly logical path
that would lead us to think we can control and interact with devices by thinking, since
you can already get games that allow you to use your brain waves to control physical
objects (Fallon, 2009).
These relatively logical progressions of technology mean that the world we live in
will be radically changed. I find this extremely exciting and feel very blessed to live in
such fast-changing times. If, however, this all fills you with a sense of dread, bear in
mind it’s the application not the technology that’s the issue. When video cassettes first
came into usage by the general population, there were huge concerns about ‘video
nasties’. We adjusted and the world continued.

A guaranteed future prediction
The only guarantee is that the pace of change within the arena of digital technology, and
the rate at which this impacts our organizations and wider society, will get faster and

faster. Organizations (and individuals) that are able to adapt to ongoing change will be
best placed to survive and thrive in this environment.

Let’s get practical
And now we move from the future of artificial intelligence and controlling technology with
your mind, to the slightly more practical aspects of mobile marketing. Part Two of this book
is your hands-on guide to implementing mobile marketing in the real world.

The tactical toolkit

Part Two of the book is a practical guide to each of the key technologies and practical
challenges involved with mobile marketing. It has been written so that you can either
read it progressively (just like a normal book), but also as a reference that can be
dipped into and out of in the order that is most appropriate to your current challenges.
However, I would advise you to try and learn about all of the aspects of mobile
marketing, even if the particular topic or technology doesn’t seem relevant for your
current situation. Increasingly, the practicalities of technologies involved have an impact
on one another and should make up part of an integrated campaign.
Also look out for the highlighted boxes of content. These contain additional
information, examples and practical tips that can help save you time and stress when
implementing your digital campaigns.

Latest techniques and best practice
Don’t forget that you can find examples of the latest mobile marketing techniques, tools and
best practice on our website. You can also ask me questions directly and share your

Mobile sites and responsive design
Let’s make something clear from the outset; you need a mobile-optimized site. That
doesn’t mean your site happens to work on mobile devices. It means the user journey via
mobile has been carefully considered and you offer the optimal experience via mobile
devices. It means that you have weighed up the different technical solutions in order to
achieve this and have selected the most appropriate approach. It also means that you
have not been steered by the limitations of your current web platform or content
management system (CMS).
In this chapter we’ll explore why a mobile site really is absolutely essential, why
apps and mobile sites aren’t a one-or-the-other choice, and how you can achieve your
marketing and business objectives using mobile sites.

Start with the fundamentals
Already, over 50 per cent of visitors to many sites get there via mobile devices
(Sterling, 2016). This means that, potentially, the majority of your audience will be on a
mobile device. This is reason enough to make sure your site is fully optimized for these
visitors, before you even consider the potential of increased conversion rates and
average order values via a properly optimized mobile experience. Increases in
conversion rates of up to 76 per cent have been demonstrated through properly
optimized mobile experience (Monetate, 2016).

Focus on the user journey
The key point of a mobile-optimized site is to offer an experience that best suits the
consumers’ needs and circumstances. This means they should be able to access the
information or utility that your site offers, on the device they are using, in an easy and
efficient way.

Classic mistakes

Having a website that works on mobile devices often confuses people into thinking they have
a mobile-optimized experience. If your website works on mobile devices, but the consumer
spends much of his or her time zooming in and out to see anything clearly, this is not an
optimized experience.

Broken journey
Adopting the latest technology trends without considering the impact they have on the user
journey is a common mistake. Placing a Quick Response (QR) code onto your latest outdoor
advertising campaign, without considering the fact that the website you are sending mobile
users through to does not work on mobile devices, is not a great idea.

Mobile site dead end
This is my pet hate. It involves visiting a website on a mobile device and then being
redirected to a mobile-specific version of the website. Nothing disastrous so far, but there is
nothing more annoying than finding the piece of content I need isn’t on their mobile site, but
their technology won’t let me visit their standard site on my mobile device. Every time I try
and visit the main site it just redirects me. Give people an option to visit the standard website.

Mobile site options
One size fits all
The first, simplest and least likely to work approach! The idea is that you create one site
that works well on desktop and mobile devices. In reality, it normally means that some
sacrifices have to be made and that either your desktop or mobile site will need to
The only scenario in which this really works is when your site is very simple and
limited in its functionality. An example of this would be a site based on a single landing
page with a sign-up form.
What we are really doing in this scenario quite often is tweaking a website so it at
least functions correctly on a mobile device. This clearly isn’t a mobile-optimized site,
but it may be what you need to do as an interim measure.
What this highlights is that we need to start by understanding what should be the key
differences between a mobile and desktop experience and why. We’ll explore this in the
next section of this chapter.

Dedicated mobile site
A mobile-specific version of your website can seem like the most obvious solution.
Basically, you have two versions of your website, a mobile and a desktop version, and
depending on the device the site visitor is using, they are given a different version of
your site.
You could in fact have multiple versions beyond a desktop and a mobile version, and
have versions for individual devices or maybe just separate desktop, smartphone and
tablet versions.
The advantage of this approach is the ability to completely adjust a site for an
optimized mobile experience. The downside is that you have multiple sites to manage
and this can create a few challenges.
The level of complexity this creates will depend on how you update and manage the
content of your sites. Static sites, which are sites that are updated and edited by changing
the code itself (using a developer or updating it yourself), just mean increased
workloads as you have multiple sites to update. Content-managed sites, which are sites
where you have some form of interface that allows you to update your site, can be more
CMS can be used in a number of different ways to manage mobile sites:
A CMS-based desktop site and static mobile site – this means you have a mobileoptimized site built but in order to edit and change it, you will need to use a
developer or edit the code directly yourself.
A CMS-based desktop site and separate CMS for your mobile site – this means
you will have two separate CMSs in order to update the different versions of your
sites. This makes the movement of content between the two sites more complex, but
can be a fairly straightforward solution.
A single CMS for multiple versions of your site – this means that although you have
a separate mobile-optimized site, you are able to manage your site content for
multiple sites under one CMS. Generally, this solution will allow you to edit content
and ‘assign’ it to a particular version of your site. This is a fairly elegant solution but
requires a CMS that is designed to manage this kind of situation.

Responsive design
Responsive design, sometimes referred to as adaptive design (although these definitions
actually mean different things that we’ll discuss later), means developing one site that
will display appropriately for each device it is viewed on. This means the site can look
completely different on each device and will lay out in the way best suited to a

particular environment.
This approach is generally implemented using a combination of web technologies like
cascading style sheets (CSS) and JavaScript which we’ll discuss more in a moment. The
key point is that these technologies allow the browser to look at things such as the
device the site visitor is using, the width and height of the display, and then decide on
how the page should be laid out. Figure 8.1 shows the Target Internet website, and how
responsive design can be used effectively. On the left is the full width version, on the
right the same site with the browser width reduced. You’ll notice, not only is the design
made narrower, but the functionality adapts to the new size.

Responsive vs adaptive design
Responsive design and adaptive design are often terms that are used interchangeably;
however, they are quite distinct things.
Responsive design is something that is actioned within your browser. This means that a
page is sent to your browser, and your browser then does the work to display the correct
elements of the page. This is called a client-side technology (the client is your browser).
Adaptive design is something that is actioned on the web server. The type of device being
used is identified and then the appropriate version of the site is delivered. This is called a
server-side technology.
The advantage of adaptive design is that not as much content is sent to the browser where
it may not be used and a solely mobile version of a site is sent to a mobile device. (See the
next box on responsive design and its limitations.)

FIGURE 8.1 Effective responsive sites

Hybrid approach
There are also some solutions that take elements of dedicated mobile sites and combine

them with some responsive design elements. For example, your site could use a number
of CSSs to make your site look different on different devices, but your CMS could allow
you to select which pages, menu options and other features display on different versions
of your site. This essentially amounts to a dedicated mobile site but can help minimize
the management time involved in having multiple sites.
There are also other technologies that can be combined with responsive design to get
past its limitations and to create an optimized mobile experience. These are often
referred to as ‘responsive web design with server-side components’ or RESS for short.

A silver bullet for mobile sites
Responsive design is often seen as a silver bullet solution, solving all of our mobile site
problems. It certainly can offer a single site solution, meaning that your website adapts
according to the device of the visitor. There are, however, some considerations you need to
be aware of.
First, you need to consider if a responsively designed site can go far enough to really
implement a mobile-optimized experience, or whether you are still making compromises
because of the limitations of the technology. It’s certainly possible to achieve an optimized
experience in most scenarios, but this very much depends on how your site is implemented
and what functionality you require. In many cases, for example, e-commerce sites still need a
dedicated mobile site as responsive design just doesn’t give enough flexibility to adapt the site
as much as is required.
Another consideration should be load time. If responsive design is implemented poorly,
you can end up loading a full desktop site to a mobile device, and then just displaying certain
elements of it. For this reason, it is generally a better bet to start considering responsive
design from the outset of a web project rather than trying to bolt it on afterwards, as this
often leads to ‘bloated’ websites that can be slow to load.
Rather than being a silver bullet, responsive design techniques are just that: techniques.
They can certainly help you achieve a mobile-optimized experience, but you should also be
aware of their limitations and that they can be used in combination with other techniques.

Mobile design principles: mobile sites vs desktop
So let’s take a look in the following section at the key considerations when we are
considering mobile sites and the main differences from a desktop version of a website.

Prioritization of content

One of the key issues with mobile devices is generally their screen size and the fact that
screens are smaller than those of a desktop or laptop computer. This means that page
‘real estate’ is at a premium and we need to make viewing and understanding the content
as easy as possible.
This generally means considering the mobile user’s journey and prioritizing content
according to their potential needs. It also means filtering out content that may not be
essential in order to de-clutter the mobile experience.

Horizontal vs vertical layout
Smartphones are generally used initially in vertical layout as are tablet devices. Screens
on desktop devices, however, are generally horizontally orientated. This orientation
needs to be factored into our designs, but we also need to consider the fact that mobile
devices can change orientation.

Links and buttons
Throughout websites we use hyperlinks extensively, and hyperlinks are just linked text.
This approach is less effective on mobile devices because of the size of screens relative
to our input device, ie our fingers. For this reason, buttons tend to work better on mobile
devices but can look extremely clunky on desktop sites.

Screen size and graphics
Quite clearly we are generally dealing with smaller screen sizes and we have already
discussed how screen space is at a premium. However, this lack of space and screen
size mean that many graphics that are suitable for desktop-based sites are not suitable on
mobile sites. This is generally due to the lack of clarity when an image is small and
because of the amount of space they are taking up in the precious amount of space

Reduced hierarchy
Many desktop-based sites offer various ways of navigating their content, hierarchical
menu systems and page elements like breadcrumb trails that show where you are on the
site. Because of space limitations we often need to remove many of these elements.
However, it is also essential that the mobile user does not feel lost or confused as to
where they are on the site. For this reason, having a reduced and simpler hierarchy on
your mobile site can make things much easier.

Phone integration
Phones clearly have additional functionality not offered by desktop devices that can
often be used within mobile sites (apps can generally access these functionalities even
more effectively and we’ll discuss that in Chapter 10 on apps later). Things like
geographic location, click-to-maps, click-to-text and so on can be utilized to improve
the mobile experience.

Technology and jargon in perspective
When talking about mobile site development, there are a lot of technical terms and
technologies involved. Below you’ll find a few of the most important ones that should
help you navigate, discuss and develop your mobile site plans:
HTML – hypertext markup language (HTML) is the markup language used to lay out
web pages. The files sent to our web browsers when we request a web page are
HTML files which are then translated by the browser into what we see.
CSS – cascading style sheets (CSS) describes the styling information for a markup
language. This basically means it defines what different parts of a web page should
look like. A range of CSS can be used on different devices to generate varying
content layout.
JavaScript – JavaScript is a client-side language (meaning it is run and used within a
browser) to add extra functionality to web pages. It is often used to help select which
is the most appropriate CSS to use on a particular device.
Responsive design – responsive design allows web pages to be displayed differently
on different devices by adjusting the layout and page elements shown. These
adjustments are made within the browser.
Adaptive design – adaptive design allows for a specific version of a web page to be
sent to a specific device or browser. Once the device and/or browser is known, only
the relevant version of the web page is sent to the browser.
Progressive enhancement – this is an approach to building web pages that tries to
prevent sending content to basic browsers that wouldn’t be compatible with it. This
means a basic version of a web page is built and then gradually enhanced for more
sophisticated browsers. The more sophisticated elements of the page are not loaded
initially, meaning there is no wasted load time.
RESS – responsive web design with server-side components (RESS) is a technique
combining elements of responsive web design and other technologies to maximize the
mobile experience and bypass shortcomings of individual techniques. RESS is also
often referred to as ‘adaptive design’.

Media queries – these are part of CSS and an important part of responsive design.
They allow the layou